Upper limb functional electrical stimulation devices and their man–machine interfaces
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Journal: Journal of Medical Engineering and Technology
Publisher: Taylor and Francis Ltd
Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) is a technique that uses electricity to activate the nerves of a muscle that is paralysed due to hemiplegia, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease or spinal cord injury (SCI). FES has been widely used to restore upper limb functions in people with hemiplegia and C5–C7 tetraplegia and has improved their ability to perform their activities of daily living (ADL). At the time of writing, a detailed literature review of the existing upper limb FES devices and their man–machine interfaces (MMI) showed that only the NESS H200 was commercially available. However, the rigid arm splint doesn’t fit everyone and prevents the use of a tenodesis grip. Hence, a robust and versatile upper limb FES device that can be used by a wider group of people is required.