Increasing walking among older people: A test of behaviour change techniques using factorial randomised N-of-1 trials

Authors: Nyman, S.R., Goodwin, K., Kwasnicka, D. and Callaway, A.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/22375/

Journal: Psychology & Health

Volume: 31

Issue: 3

Pages: 313-330

Objective: Evaluations of techniques to promote physical activity usually adopt a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Such designs inform how a technique performs on average but cannot be used for treatment of individuals. Our objective was to conduct the first N-of-1 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behaviour change techniques with older people and test the effectiveness of the techniques for increasing walking within individuals. Design: Eight adults aged 60-87 were randomised to a 2 (goal-setting vs. active control) x 2 (self-monitoring vs. active control) factorial RCT over 62 days. The time series data was analysed for each single case using linear regressions.

Main outcome measures: Walking was objectively measured using pedometers. Results: Compared to control days, goal-setting increased walking in 4 out of 8 individuals and self-monitoring increased walking in 7 out of 8 individuals. While the probability for self-monitoring to be effective in 7 out of 8 participants was beyond chance (p = 0.03), no intervention effect was significant for individual participants. Two participants had a significant but small linear decrease in walking over time.

Conclusion: We demonstrate the utility of N-of-1 trials for advancing scientific enquiry of behaviour change and in practice for increasing older people’s physical activity.

This data was imported from PubMed:

Authors: Nyman, S.R., Goodwin, K., Kwasnicka, D. and Callaway, A.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/22375/

Journal: Psychol Health

Volume: 31

Issue: 3

Pages: 313-330

eISSN: 1476-8321

DOI: 10.1080/08870446.2015.1088014

OBJECTIVE: Evaluations of techniques to promote physical activity usually adopt a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Such designs inform how a technique performs on average but cannot be used for treatment of individuals. Our objective was to conduct the first N-of-1 RCTs of behaviour change techniques with older people and test the effectiveness of the techniques for increasing walking within individuals. DESIGN: Eight adults aged 60-87 were randomised to a 2 (goal-setting vs. active control) × 2 (self-monitoring vs. active control) factorial RCT over 62 days. The time series data were analysed for each single case using linear regressions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Walking was objectively measured using pedometers. RESULTS: Compared to control days, goal-setting increased walking in 4 out of 8 individuals and self-monitoring increased walking in 7 out of 8 individuals. While the probability for self-monitoring to be effective in 7 out of 8 participants was beyond chance (p = .03), no intervention effect was significant for individual participants. Two participants had a significant but small linear decrease in walking over time. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate the utility of N-of-1 trials for advancing scientific enquiry of behaviour change and in practice for increasing older people's physical activity.

This data was imported from Scopus:

Authors: Nyman, S.R., Goodwin, K., Kwasnicka, D. and Callaway, A.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/22375/

Journal: Psychology and Health

Volume: 31

Issue: 3

Pages: 313-330

eISSN: 1476-8321

ISSN: 0887-0446

DOI: 10.1080/08870446.2015.1088014

© 2015, © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis. Objective: Evaluations of techniques to promote physical activity usually adopt a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Such designs inform how a technique performs on average but cannot be used for treatment of individuals. Our objective was to conduct the first N-of-1 RCTs of behaviour change techniques with older people and test the effectiveness of the techniques for increasing walking within individuals. Design: Eight adults aged 60–87 were randomised to a 2 (goal-setting vs. active control) × 2 (self-monitoring vs. active control) factorial RCT over 62 days. The time series data were analysed for each single case using linear regressions. Main outcome measures: Walking was objectively measured using pedometers. Results: Compared to control days, goal-setting increased walking in 4 out of 8 individuals and self-monitoring increased walking in 7 out of 8 individuals. While the probability for self-monitoring to be effective in 7 out of 8 participants was beyond chance (p = .03), no intervention effect was significant for individual participants. Two participants had a significant but small linear decrease in walking over time. Conclusion: We demonstrate the utility of N-of-1 trials for advancing scientific enquiry of behaviour change and in practice for increasing older people’s physical activity.

This data was imported from Scopus:

Authors: Nyman, S.R., Goodwin, K., Kwasnicka, D. and Callaway, A.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/22375/

Journal: Psychology and Health

eISSN: 1476-8321

ISSN: 0887-0446

DOI: 10.1080/08870446.2015.1088014

© 2015 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis Objective: Evaluations of techniques to promote physical activity usually adopt a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Such designs inform how a technique performs on average but cannot be used for treatment of individuals. Our objective was to conduct the first N-of-1 RCTs of behaviour change techniques with older people and test the effectiveness of the techniques for increasing walking within individuals. Design: Eight adults aged 60–87 were randomised to a 2 (goal-setting vs. active control) × 2 (self-monitoring vs. active control) factorial RCT over 62 days. The time series data were analysed for each single case using linear regressions. Main outcome measures: Walking was objectively measured using pedometers. Results: Compared to control days, goal-setting increased walking in 4 out of 8 individuals and self-monitoring increased walking in 7 out of 8 individuals. While the probability for self-monitoring to be effective in 7 out of 8 participants was beyond chance (p = .03), no intervention effect was significant for individual participants. Two participants had a significant but small linear decrease in walking over time. Conclusion: We demonstrate the utility of N-of-1 trials for advancing scientific enquiry of behaviour change and in practice for increasing older people’s physical activity.

This source preferred by Samuel Nyman, Kelly Goodwin and Andrew Callaway

This data was imported from Web of Science (Lite):

Authors: Nyman, S.R., Goodwin, K., Kwasnicka, D. and Callaway, A.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/22375/

Journal: PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH

Volume: 31

Issue: 3

Pages: 313-330

eISSN: 1476-8321

ISSN: 0887-0446

DOI: 10.1080/08870446.2015.1088014

This data was imported from Europe PubMed Central:

Authors: Nyman, S.R., Goodwin, K., Kwasnicka, D. and Callaway, A.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/22375/

Journal: Psychology & health

Volume: 31

Issue: 3

Pages: 313-330

eISSN: 1476-8321

ISSN: 0887-0446

Evaluations of techniques to promote physical activity usually adopt a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Such designs inform how a technique performs on average but cannot be used for treatment of individuals. Our objective was to conduct the first N-of-1 RCTs of behaviour change techniques with older people and test the effectiveness of the techniques for increasing walking within individuals.Eight adults aged 60-87 were randomised to a 2 (goal-setting vs. active control) × 2 (self-monitoring vs. active control) factorial RCT over 62 days. The time series data were analysed for each single case using linear regressions.Walking was objectively measured using pedometers.Compared to control days, goal-setting increased walking in 4 out of 8 individuals and self-monitoring increased walking in 7 out of 8 individuals. While the probability for self-monitoring to be effective in 7 out of 8 participants was beyond chance (p = .03), no intervention effect was significant for individual participants. Two participants had a significant but small linear decrease in walking over time.We demonstrate the utility of N-of-1 trials for advancing scientific enquiry of behaviour change and in practice for increasing older people's physical activity.

The data on this page was last updated at 04:38 on September 19, 2017.