Tim Slattery

Dr Tim Slattery

  • 01202 962556
  • tslattery at bournemouth dot ac dot uk
  • Senior Lecturer in Psychology
  • Poole House P104c, Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow, Poole, BH12 5BB
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Biography

I earned my BSc in Psychology with honours from the University of Buffalo in 1996. After graduation I spent 4 years working in a residential treatment centre for juvenile offenders in New York. This arduous work led me to the realisation that I desired a career in scientific research. So, in 2001 I embarked on my PhD in Cognitive Psychology under the supervision of Dr. Alexander Pollatsek at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst where I also earned a minor in Quantitative Analysis. During my PhD studies, I also had the pleasure of completing a summer internship program at NASA's Ames Research Center in Mountain View California where I worked under the supervision of Dr. Cynthia Null. After earning my PhD, I accepted a Post-Doc position at the University of California at San Diego with Keith Rayner in 2007, where I further honed my skills as an eye movement researcher. In 2011 I accepted a post as an Assistant Professor at the University of South Alabama establishing a new Psycholinguistics lab there and further developing my teaching abilities...

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Research

My research focuses primarily on eye movements during reading, and I am interested in advancing the field of psycholinguistics through the implementation and testing of computational models. I am particularly interested in the processing of abbreviations such as textisms and acronyms as they provide unique opportunities to explore the processing of orthographic, phonological, and semantic representations. I have also been exploring how differences in reading perspective (what readers are interested in) influence reading comprehension (including the cross cultural influences that often drive differences in perspective). Efficient reading requires a number of complex cognitive processes operating in harmony. To that effect, much of my research has focused on the interplay between bottom-up (font) and top-down (language) characteristics influence foveal and parafoveal processing. Below are some of my current projects:

Letter and word spacing and dyslexia:

Working with Julie Kirkby on an adult reading study comparing the eye movements of dyslexic readers with those of non-dyslexic readers while reading texts varying in horizontal letter and word spacing.

Latent semantic analysis and word predictability in reading:

Obtained GA small grant funding to develop psycholinguistic stimuli for an innovative study into human lexical prediction during reading.

Individual differences in reading ability: Working with Mark Yates from the University of South Alabama to investigate various skill related to reading (e.g...

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Degraded text and parafoveal preview: Working with Bernhard Angele and Martin Vasilev on a project investigating the lexical and attentional processing related to degraded text parafoveal previews during reading. Three eye movement experiments have been conducted (two using the change detection paradigm of Slattery, Angele, & Rayner, 2011) the results have been analysed and a manuscript submission is eminent.

Favourites

  • Slattery, T.J., Yates, M. and Angele, B., 2016. Interword and Interletter Spacing Effects During Reading Revisited: Interactions With Word and Font Characteristics. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-APPLIED, 22 (4), 406-422.
  • Angele, B., Slattery, T.J. and Rayner, K., 2016. Two stages of parafoveal processing during reading: Evidence from a display change detection task. PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW, 23 (4), 1241-1249.
  • Angele, B., Schotter, E.R., Slattery, T.J., Tenenbaum, T.L., Bicknell, K. and Rayner, K., 2015. Do successor effects in reading reflect lexical parafoveal processing? Evidence from corpus-based and experimental eye movement data. JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE, 79, 76-96.
  • Slattery, T.J., Sturt, P., Christianson, K., Yoshida, M. and Ferreira, F., 2013. Lingering misinterpretations of garden path sentences arise from competing syntactic representations. Journal of Memory and Language, 69 (2), 104-120.
  • Slattery, T.J. and Rayner, K., 2013. Effects of intraword and interword spacing on eye movements during reading: Exploring the optimal use of space in a line of text. Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, 75 (6), 1275-1292.
  • Slattery, T.J., Staub, A. and Rayner, K., 2012. Saccade launch site as a predictor of fixation durations in reading: Comments on Hand, Miellet, O'Donnell, and Sereno (2010). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38 (1), 251-261.
  • Bélanger, N.N., Slattery, T.J., Mayberry, R.I. and Rayner, K., 2012. Skilled Deaf Readers Have an Enhanced Perceptual Span in Reading. Psychological Science, 23 (7), 816-823.
  • Slattery, T.J., Angele, B. and Rayner, K., 2011. Eye Movements and Display Change Detection During Reading. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE, 37 (6), 1924-1938.
  • Gollan, T.H., Slattery, T.J., Goldenberg, D., Van Assche, E., Duyck, W. and Rayner, K., 2011. Frequency Drives Lexical Access in Reading but Not in Speaking: The Frequency-Lag Hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 140 (2), 186-209.
  • Rayner, K., Slattery, T.J., Drieghe, D. and Liversedge, S.P., 2011. Eye Movements and Word Skipping During Reading: Effects of Word Length and Predictability. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 37 (2), 514-528.
  • Slattery, T.J. and Rayner, K., 2010. The influence of text legibility on eye movements during reading. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24 (8), 1129-1148.
  • Levy, R., Bicknell, K., Slattery, T. and Rayner, K., 2009. Eye movement evidence that readers maintain and act on uncertainty about past linguistic input. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106 (50), 21086-21090.
  • Slattery, T.J., 2009. Word Misperception, the Neighbor Frequency Effect, and the Role of Sentence Context: Evidence From Eye Movements. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35 (6), 1969-1975.
  • Angele, B., Slattery, T.J., Yang, J., Kliegl, R. and Rayner, K., 2008. Parafoveal processing in reading: Manipulating n+1 and n+2 previews simultaneously. VISUAL COGNITION, 16 (6), 697-707.
  • Rayner, K., Pollatsek, A., Drieghe, D., Slattery, T.J. and Reichle, E.D., 2007. Tracking the Mind During Reading Via Eye Movements: Comments on Kliegl, Nuthmann, and Engbert (2006). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136 (3), 520-529.
  • Rayner, K., Chace, K.H., Slattery, T.J. and Ashby, J., 2006. Eye movements as reflections of comprehension processes in reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 10 (3), 241-255.
  • Slattery, T.J., 2016. Eye movements: From psycholinguistics to font design. Digital Fonts and Reading. 54-78.

Journal Articles

  • Slattery, T.J. and Yates, M., 2017. Word skipping: effects of word length, predictability, spelling and reading skill. Q J Exp Psychol (Hove), 1-40.
  • Vasilev, M.R., Slattery, T.J., Kirkby, J.A. and Angele, B., 2017. What Are the Costs of Degraded Parafoveal Previews During Silent Reading? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition.
  • Parker, A.J., Kirkby, J.A. and Slattery, T.J., 2017. Predictability effects during reading in the absence of parafoveal preview. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 1-10.
  • Slattery, T.J., Yates, M. and Angele, B., 2016. Interword and Interletter Spacing Effects During Reading Revisited: Interactions With Word and Font Characteristics. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-APPLIED, 22 (4), 406-422.
  • Angele, B., Slattery, T.J. and Rayner, K., 2016. Two stages of parafoveal processing during reading: Evidence from a display change detection task. PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW, 23 (4), 1241-1249.
  • Angele, B., Schotter, E.R., Slattery, T.J., Tenenbaum, T.L., Bicknell, K. and Rayner, K., 2016. Corrigendum to "Do successor effects in reading reflect lexical parafoveal processing? Evidence from corpus-based and experimental eye movement data" [J. Mem. Lang. 79-80 (2015) 76-96]. Journal of Memory and Language.
  • Angele, B., Schotter, E.R., Slattery, T.J., Tenenbaum, T.L., Bicknell, K. and Rayner, K., 2015. Do successor effects in reading reflect lexical parafoveal processing? Evidence from corpus-based and experimental eye movement data. JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE, 79, 76-96.
  • Rayner, K., Yang, J., Schuett, S. and Slattery, T.J., 2014. The effect of foveal and parafoveal masks on the eye movements of older and younger readers. Psychology and Aging, 29 (2), 205-212.
  • Schad, D.J., Risse, S., Slattery, T. and Rayner, K., 2014. Word frequency in fast priming: Evidence for immediate cognitive control of eye movements during reading. Visual Cognition, 22 (3), 390-414.
  • Yang, J., Li, N., Wang, S., Slattery, T.J. and Rayner, K., 2014. Encoding the target or the plausible preview word? The nature of the plausibility preview benefit in reading Chinese. Visual Cognition, 22 (2), 193-213.
  • Dambacher, M., Slattery, T.J., Yang, J., Kliegl, R. and Rayner, K., 2013. Evidence for direct control of eye movements during reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 39 (5), 1468-1484.
  • Rayner, K., Yang, J., Schuett, S. and Slattery, T.J., 2013. Eye movements of older and younger readers when reading unspaced text. Experimental Psychology, 60 (5), 354-361.
  • Slattery, T.J., Sturt, P., Christianson, K., Yoshida, M. and Ferreira, F., 2013. Lingering misinterpretations of garden path sentences arise from competing syntactic representations. Journal of Memory and Language, 69 (2), 104-120.
  • Slattery, T.J. and Rayner, K., 2013. Effects of intraword and interword spacing on eye movements during reading: Exploring the optimal use of space in a line of text. Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, 75 (6), 1275-1292.
  • Slattery, T.J., Staub, A. and Rayner, K., 2012. Saccade launch site as a predictor of fixation durations in reading: Comments on Hand, Miellet, O'Donnell, and Sereno (2010). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38 (1), 251-261.
  • Bélanger, N.N., Slattery, T.J., Mayberry, R.I. and Rayner, K., 2012. Skilled Deaf Readers Have an Enhanced Perceptual Span in Reading. Psychological Science, 23 (7), 816-823.
  • Slattery, T.J., Angele, B. and Rayner, K., 2011. Eye Movements and Display Change Detection During Reading. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE, 37 (6), 1924-1938.
  • Slattery, T.J., Schotter, E.R., Berry, R.W. and Rayner, K., 2011. Parafoveal and Foveal Processing of Abbreviations During Eye Fixations in Reading: Making a Case for Case. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 37 (4), 1022-1031.
  • Sullivan, J.L., Juhasz, B.J., Slattery, T.J. and Barth, H.C., 2011. Adults' number-line estimation strategies: Evidence from eye movements. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 18 (3), 557-563.
  • Gollan, T.H., Slattery, T.J., Goldenberg, D., Van Assche, E., Duyck, W. and Rayner, K., 2011. Frequency Drives Lexical Access in Reading but Not in Speaking: The Frequency-Lag Hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 140 (2), 186-209.
  • Rayner, K., Slattery, T.J., Drieghe, D. and Liversedge, S.P., 2011. Eye Movements and Word Skipping During Reading: Effects of Word Length and Predictability. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 37 (2), 514-528.
  • Rayner, K., Slattery, T.J. and Bélanger, N.N., 2010. Eye movements, the perceptual span, and reading speed. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 17 (6), 834-839.
  • Slattery, T.J. and Rayner, K., 2010. The influence of text legibility on eye movements during reading. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24 (8), 1129-1148.
  • Levy, R., Bicknell, K., Slattery, T. and Rayner, K., 2010. Erratum: Eye movement evidence that readers maintain and act on uncertainty about past linguistic input (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2009) 106, 50 (21086-21090) DOI:10.1073/pnas. 0907664106). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107 (11), 5260.
  • Levy, R., Bicknell, K., Slattery, T. and Rayner, K., 2009. Eye movement evidence that readers maintain and act on uncertainty about past linguistic input. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106 (50), 21086-21090.
  • Slattery, T.J., 2009. Word Misperception, the Neighbor Frequency Effect, and the Role of Sentence Context: Evidence From Eye Movements. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35 (6), 1969-1975.
  • Pollatsek, A., Slattery, T.J. and Juhasz, B., 2008. The processing of novel and lexicalised prefixed words in reading. Language and Cognitive Processes, 23 (7-8), 1133-1158.
  • Angele, B., Slattery, T.J., Yang, J., Kliegl, R. and Rayner, K., 2008. Parafoveal processing in reading: Manipulating n+1 and n+2 previews simultaneously. VISUAL COGNITION, 16 (6), 697-707.
  • Slattery, T.J., Pollatsek, A. and Rayner, K., 2007. The effect of the frequencies of three consecutive content words on eye movements during reading. Memory and Cognition, 35 (6), 1283-1292.
  • Rayner, K., Pollatsek, A., Drieghe, D., Slattery, T.J. and Reichle, E.D., 2007. Tracking the Mind During Reading Via Eye Movements: Comments on Kliegl, Nuthmann, and Engbert (2006). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136 (3), 520-529.
  • Rayner, K., Chace, K.H., Slattery, T.J. and Ashby, J., 2006. Eye movements as reflections of comprehension processes in reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 10 (3), 241-255.
  • Slattery, T.J., Pollatsek, A. and Rayner, K., 2006. The time course of phonological and orthographic processing of acronyms in reading: Evidence from eye movements. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 13 (3), 412-417.
  • Rayner, K., Pollatsek, A., Drieghe, D., Slattery, T.J. and Reichle, E.D., 2006. Tracking the mind during reading via eye movements: Comments on Kliegl. Nuthmann, and Engbert, 520-529.

Chapters

PhD Students

  • Adam Parker (Eye movements and reading at sentence and line boundaries: exploring wrap-up and return-sweep effects.)

Profile of Teaching UG

  • Project Unit
  • Cognition and Language
  • Eye Tracking and Cognition

Invited Lectures

  • Despite the large number of eye movement studies of reading conducted over the past 30+ years, relatively few of these have examined the influence that font characteristics have on reading. However, recently there has been increased interest in one particular font characteristic—letter spacing. As a text variable, letter spacing has both theoretical (visual word recognition) and applied (font design) importance. But, recently published results that letter spacing has a bigger impact on the reading performance of dyslexic children have perhaps garnered the most attention (Zorzi et al. 2012). Unfortunately, the findings from these recent studies have been mixed with some authors reporting facilitation from increased inter-letter spacing and others reporting inhibition (van den Boer & Hakvoort, 2015). I will review recent studies and then present the findings from three recent experiments designed to explain the seemingly inconsistent letter-spacing effects. The results indicate that the direction of spacing effects depends on the size of the ‘default’ spacing chosen by font developers. Additionally, the size of this ‘default’ is interrelated with other font characteristics (e.g. fixed vs. proportional width letters).
  • Despite the large number of eye movement studies of reading conducted over the past 30+ years, relatively few of these have examined the influence that font characteristics have on reading. However, recently there has been increased interest in one particular font characteristic—letter spacing. As a text variable, letter spacing has both theoretical (visual word recognition) and applied (font design) importance. But, recently published results that letter spacing has a bigger impact on the reading performance of dyslexic children have perhaps garnered the most attention (Zorzi et al. 2012). Unfortunately, the findings from these recent studies have been mixed with some authors reporting facilitation from increased inter-letter spacing and others reporting inhibition (van den Boer & Hakvoort, 2015). I will review recent studies and then present the findings from three recent experiments designed to explain the seemingly inconsistent letter-spacing effects. The results indicate that the direction of spacing effects depends on the size of the ‘default’ spacing chosen by font developers. Additionally, the size of this ‘default’ is interrelated with other font characteristics (e.g. fixed vs. proportional width letters).

Grants

  • Microsoft reading research knowledge exchange (Microsoft, 06 Jun 2017). Awarded
  • Understanding abbreviations: How Bavarian is a BMW? (British Academy / Leverhulme, 01 May 2017). Awarded
  • Word predictability effects in reading: New developments and directions (Bournemouth University RKEO GA small grants, 01 Jun 2016). Completed
  • Eye movements and reading at sentence and line boundaries: exploring wrap-up and return-sweep effects (Microsoft, 25 Jan 2016). In Progress
  • Summer professional development award (University of South Alabama, 20 May 2014). Completed
  • Text legibility factors in eye movements and reading (Microsoft, 01 Jun 2009). Completed
  • Text Legibility: ClearType and eye movements during reading (Microsoft, 01 Jul 2006). Completed

External Responsibilities

  • University of Southampton, External examiner PhD. Viva (2016-)

Public Engagement & Outreach Activities

  • Bournemouth University Active Vision Workshop (June 2016)
  • Meeting with Microsoft on their Redmond, Washington campus to discuss the research they funded.
  • Provided a lengthy update (via SKYPE) of our current and past research into the effects of typography on eye movements during reading. And explored mutual interest in additional research projects related to dyslexia.

Conference Presentations

  • South Alabama Conference on Teaching and Learning, Electronic Measurement of learning strategies and academic alchemy: Can an ordinary student be transmuted into a spectacular student?, 14 May 2012, Mobile, Alabama, USA
  • Society for Teaching of Psychology, Evidence based teaching and electronic tracking of course engagement., 11 October 2013, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
  • South Eastern Psychological Association, Using technology to measure the hidden side of learning., 5 March 2014, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
  • 12th European Conference on Eye Movements, The effect of the frequencies of three consecutive content words on eye movements during reading., 20 August 2003, Dundee, Scotland
  • Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Phonological codes assessed via acronym reading: Evidence from eye movements., 18 November 2004, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
  • Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, The role of attention in processing rotary motion across fixations., 10 November 2005, Toronto, Canada
  • Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, When good enough parsing is not good enough: Error signals and Reanalysis., 10 November 2005, Toronto, Canada
  • Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Rereading and eye movements., 10 November 2005, Toronto, Canada
  • 13th European Conference on Eye Movements, How clear is ClearType., 14 August 2005, Bern, Switzerland
  • Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, The neighbor frequency effect in English: Is there a parallel with lexical ambiguity?, 15 November 2007, Long Beach, California, USA
  • 22nd annual CUNY conference on human sentence processing, Readers maintain and act on uncertainty about past linguistic input: Evidence from eye movements., 5 March 2009, Davis, California, USA
  • 15th European Conference on Eye Movements, Eye movements and parafoveal processing in Chinese reading., 23 August 2009, Southampton, UK
  • Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Lingering garden-path effects on the reading of subsequent text., 19 November 2009, Boston, Massachusetts
  • 15th European Conference on Eye Movements, Neighbor effects and the L2 stage of the EZ Reader model., 23 August 2009, Southampton, UK
  • 15th European Conference on Eye Movements, Detection of display changes in text reading., 23 August 2009, Southampton, UK.
  • KogWis, ROC analysis of display change detections during text reading., 3 October 2010, Potsdam Germany
  • Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Eye Movements during the reading of degraded text., 11 November 2010, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
  • Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Eye movements and word skipping during reading: Effects of word length and predictability., 11 November 2010, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
  • 24th Annual CUNY conference on human sentence processing, Word re-recognition occurs during second pass reading: Evidence from eye movements., 24 March 2011, Stanford, California, USA
  • Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Skilled deaf readers have an enhanced perceptual span in reading., 3 November 2011, Seattle Washington, USA
  • 42nd Annual Meeting of the International Neuropsychological Society, A psycholinguistic analysis of the Word Memory Test: Item level characteristics and variability., 12 February 2014, Seattle, Washington, USA
  • Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Frequency drives lexical access in reading but not in speaking: The frequency-lag hypothesis., 3 November 2011, Seattle Washington, USA
  • Second Language Research Forum, The relative influences of semantic context and language context on bilinguals reading interlingual homographs., 18 October 2012, Pittsburg Pennsylvania, USA
  • Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Bilingual interlingual homograph processing: The relative influences of semantic and language contexts., 15 November 2012, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
  • Association of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Cognitive bias and the acquired capability for suicide., 20 November 2014, Philadelphia, PA, USA
  • 17th European Conference on Eye Movements, The effect of high- and low-frequency previews and sentential fit on word skipping, 11 August 2013, Lund, Sweden
  • Experimental Psychology Society (EPS) Newcastle Meeting, Do successor effects in reading reflect parafoveal processing? Evidence from corpus-based and experimental eye-movement data, 16 July 2014, Newcastle
  • 55th Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, . Do successor effects in reading reflect parafoveal processing? Evidence from corpus-based and experimental eye-movement data, 20 November 2014, Long Beach, CA, USA
  • 18th European Conference on Eye Movements, Eye movements and the effect of word frequency on display change detection during reading, 16 August 2015, Vienna, Austria
  • 56th Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Eye movements and the effect of word frequency on display change detection during reading., 19 November 2015, Chicago, IL, USA
  • 18th European Conference on Eye Movements (ECEM), Opening the door on CLOZE, 16 August 2015, University of Vienna

Honours

  • Pre-doctoral Fellowship, Applied and Basic Cognition and Development Training Program, Grant MH16745 (National Institute of Mental Health USA, 2006)
  • Young Scientist Award, Poster Competition (European Conference on Eye Movements, 2003)
  • Junior faculty award for research and scholarship (University of South Alabama, College of Arts and Sciences, 2014)

Memberships

  • Psychonomic Society, Fellow,
The data on this page was last updated at 04:06 on October 20, 2017.