Darrin Baines

Professor Darrin Baines

  • dbaines at bournemouth dot ac dot uk
  • Professor in Health Economics
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The primary purpose of his work is to assess the impact of new technologies on population economic and social well-being using the methods and the analytical tools of economics. He usually works in interdisciplinary teams providing the economist’s point of view on technology evaluations designed to inform health systems policies and decision-making. His main areas of interest are:

Health Technology Assessment (HTA)

Intelligent Decision Support Systems (IDSS)

Technology-Enabled Pharmacy (TEP)

Pharmaceutical technology and policy

Teaching pharmacoeconomics

In a thirty year career, Darrin has worked in banking, academia and consultancy, as well as being employed as an economist in the NHS. He gained his PhD in Economics at the University of Nottingham in 1998 researching the drivers of prescribing behaviour in general practice. After his doctoral studies, Darrin worked as a senior lecturer at the Health Services Management Centre (HSMC), University of Birmingham. Here, he worked alongside Professor Chris Ham on a number of ground-breaking evaluations of government policy reforms...


Journal Articles

  • Baines, D., Strickland-Hodge, B. and Kennedy, M.-C., 2018. Pharmacist Prescribing in England: Acting on History to Address Current Challenges in Pharmacy Practice. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research.
  • Kay, A. and Baines, D., 2017. Evolutionary approaches to the concept of drift in policy studies. Critical Policy Studies, 1-16.
  • Bayley, J., Baines, D. and Brown, K., 2017. Developing the evidence-base for school sex education programmes: Contributions of an augmented Theory of Planned Behaviour, gender and school year across three contraceptive methods. Sexual Health.
  • Bayley, J.E., Baines, D. and Brown, K.E., 2017. Developing the evidence base for gender-A nd age-relevant school sex education: Questionnaire findings from an adolescent sample using an augmented theory of planned behaviour. Sexual Health, 14 (6), 548-557.
  • Curtis, B.L. and Baines, D., 2016. What Is an Antique? Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 74 (1), 75-86.
  • Kellezi, B., Baines, D.L., Coupland, C., Beckett, K., Barnes, J., Sleney, J., Christie, N. and Kendrick, D., 2016. The impact of injuries on health service resource use and costs in primary and secondary care in the English NHS. Journal of Public Health (United Kingdom), 38 (4), e464-e471.
  • Sabry, N., Dawoud, D., Alansary, A., Hounsome, N. and Baines, D., 2015. Evaluation of a protocol-based intervention to promote timely switching from intravenous to oral paracetamol for post-operative pain management: An interrupted time series analysis. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 21 (6), 1081-1088.
  • Baines, D., 2015. Dispensing: It's time to let it go. Pharmaceutical Journal, 294 (7847), 113-114.
  • Wilson, A., O'Hare, J.P., Hardy, A., Raymond, N., Szczepura, A., Crossman, R., Baines, D., Khunti, K., Kumar, S. and Saravanan, P., 2014. Evaluation of the clinical and cost effectiveness of intermediate care clinics for diabetes (ICCD): A multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial. PLoS ONE, 9 (4).
  • Walker, K.F., Cohen, A.L., Walker, S.H., Allen, K.M., Baines, D.L. and Thornton, J.G., 2014. The dangers of the day of birth. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 121 (6), 714-718.
  • Armstrong, N., Baines, D. et al., 2012. A cluster randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Intermediate Care Clinics for Diabetes (ICCD): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 13.
  • Baines, D., 2008. The reforms of pharmacy in England are novations and replacements. Pharmaceutical Journal, 281 (7530), 629-630.
  • Baines, D., 2008. Are pharmacists being engineered? Pharmaceutical Journal, 281 (7516), 221-222.
  • Baines, D., 2008. Has pharmacy run out of time? Pharmaceutical Journal, 281 (7509), 21-23.
  • Baines, D., 2005. Is there an appropriate framework for examining UK pharmacy practice? Pharmaceutical Journal, 275 (7378), 687-688.
  • Baines, D.L., 2005. Community pharmacy needs magical thinkers to help secure its future? Pharmaceutical Journal, 275 (7365), 285-286.
  • Baines, D. and Hale, C., 2005. New framework for analysing practice? Pharmaceutical Journal, 274 (7332), 56-57.
  • Baines, D. and Hale, C., 2004. New apothecaries: How pharmacists can protect their independence in the NHS. Pharmaceutical Journal, 273 (7324), 684-685.
  • Baines, D. and Hale, C., 2004. How to build a professional network. Pharmaceutical Journal, 273 (7313), 258-259.
  • Baines, D. and Hale, C., 2004. Use network theory to develop services. Pharmaceutical Journal, 273 (7312), 222-223.
  • Baines, D. and Hale, C., 2004. How should community pharmacists be paid under the new contract? Pharmaceutical Journal, 273 (7309), 119-120.
  • Baines, D. and Hale, C., 2004. Pharmacy economics: Are proposals for a national contract already redundant? Pharmaceutical Journal, 273 (7308), 89-90.
  • Baines, D., Kay, A., Hale, C. and Goodyer, L., 2003. OFT the beaten track? Pharmaceutical Journal, 270 (7233), 122-123.
  • Whynes, D.K. and Baines, D.L., 2002. Primary care physicians' attitudes to health care reform in England. Health Policy, 60 (2), 111-132.
  • Baines, D.L., 2001. A healthy disposition? The use and limitations of the characteristics approach to general practice research. British Journal of General Practice, 51 (470), 749-752.
  • Kay, A. and Baines, D., 2000. The house of commons health select committee's report on generic prices - Implications for primary care prescribing. Pharmaceutical Journal, 265 (7121), 689-691.
  • Smith, J., Regen, E., Shapiro, J. and Baines, D., 2000. National evaluation of general practitioner commissioning pilots: Lessons for primary care groups. British Journal of General Practice, 50 (455), 469-472.
  • Avery, A.J., Rodgers, S., Heron, T., Crombie, R., Whynes, D., Pringle, M., Baines, D., Petchey, R. and Cole, T.J., 2000. A prescription for improvement? An observational study to identify how general practices vary in their growth in prescribing costs. BMJ, 321 (7256), 276-281.
  • Baines, D.L., Rafferty, J.P. and McLeod, H.S.T., 2000. A survey of english NHS prescribing advisers'roles, and their views on improving prescribing in the new NHS. Pharmaceutical Journal, 264 (7091), 557-559.
  • Baines, D.L. and Parry, D.J., 2000. Analysis of the ability of the new needs adjustment formula to improve the setting of weighted capitation prescribing budgets in English general practice. British Medical Journal, 320 (7230), 288-290.
  • Kay, A. and Baines, D., 2000. The rapid increase in generic prices in the UK: A failure of competition or regulation? Public Money and Management, 20 (3), 35-38.
  • Walsh, N., Huntington, J., Barnes, M., Baines, D. and Rogers, H., 2000. Personal medical services. Friends and relations. The Health service journal, 110 (5717), 28-29.
  • Baines, D. and Whynes, D., 1998. The use of the ASTRO-PU and the ASTRO(97)-PU in the setting of prescribing budgets in English general practice. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 23 (3), 229-234.
  • Baines, D.L., Tolley, K.H. and Whynes, D.K., 1998. The ethics of resource allocation: The views of general practitioners in Lincolnshire, U.K. Social Science and Medicine, 47 (10), 1555-1564.
  • Baines, D. and Couper, N., 1998. Primary care groups. The cultivated commissioner. The Health service journal, 108 (5602), 26-27.
  • Whynes, D.K. and Baines, D.L., 1998. Income-based incentives in UK general practice. Health Policy, 43 (1), 15-31.
  • Bates, J.M., Baines, D.L. and Whynes, D.K., 1998. Assessing efficiency in general practice: An application of data envelopment analysis. Health Services Management Research, 11 (2), 103-108.
  • Baines, D.L., 1997. Over-the-counter drugs and prescribing in general practice. British Journal of General Practice, 47 (417), 221-224.
  • Baines, D.L., Whynes, D.K. and Tolley, K.H., 1997. General practitioner fundholding and prescribing expenditure control. Evidence from a rural English health authority. PharmacoEconomics, 11 (4), 350-358.
  • Whynes, D.K., Baines, D.L. and Tolley, K.H., 1997. GP fundholding and the costs of prescribing: Further results. Journal of Public Health Medicine, 19 (1), 18-22.
  • Baines, D.L., Brigham, P., Phillips, D.R., Tolley, K.H. and Whynes, D.K., 1997. GP fundholding and prescribing in UK general practice: Evidence from two rural, English Family Health Services Authorities. Public Health, 111 (5), 321-325.
  • Baines, D. and Whynes, D., 1997. Prescribing. Saving graces. The Health service journal, 107 (5578), 24-25.
  • Whynes, D.K., Baines, D.L. and Tolley, K.H., 1997. Prescribing costs in UK general practice: The impact of hard budget constraints. Applied Economics, 29 (3), 393-399.
  • Baines, D.L. and Whynes, D.K., 1996. Selection bias in GP fundholding. Health Economics, 5 (2), 129-140.
  • Whynes, D.K. and Baines, D.L., 1996. Explaining variations in the frequency of night visits in general practice. Family Practice, 13 (2), 174-178.
  • Whynes, D.K., Baines, D.L. and Tolley, K.H., 1996. Explaining variations in general practice prescribing costs per ASTRO-PU (age, sex, and temporary resident originated prescribing unit). British Medical Journal, 312 (7029), 488-489.
  • Whynes, D. and Baines, D., 1996. Predicting activity and workload in general practice from the demographic structure of the practice population. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, 1 (3), 128-134.
  • Bates, J.M., Baines, D. and Whynes, D.K., 1996. Measuring the efficiency of prescribing by general practitioners. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 47 (12), 1443-1451.
  • Baines, D.L., Tolley, K.H. and Whynes, D.K., 1996. The costs of prescribing in dispensing practices. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 21 (5), 343-348.
  • Whynes, D.K., Baines, D.L. and Tolley, K.H., 1995. GP fundholding and the costs of prescribing. Journal of Public Health, 17 (3), 323-329.


  • Dawoud, D.M. and Baines, D.L., 2016. Economic Evaluation and Its Types. Economic Evaluation of Pharmacy Services. 99-119.


  • Breedon, P., Watts, P., Cox, G., Szczepura, A., Baines, D., Johnson, K., Venables, V. and Nduka, C., 2017. F.R.A.M.E - Facial remote activity monitoring eyewear. 207-211.
  • Hale, C. and Baines, D., 2004. New European policy could abolish control of entry whatever NHS wants. 600-601.

Invited Lectures

  • Managing cost calculation in implementation, Seville, Spain, 19 Nov 2016 more
  • Technology-enabled pharmacy, Cairio, Egypt, 14 Jan 2017 more


  • Mapping Invention for Innovation (NIHR Central Commissioning Facility, 15 Nov 2016). Completed
  • The UK-China Health and Economy Partnership: A novel knowledge transfer partnership promoting long-term collaboration in pharmacoeconomics (British Council GSK Pharmacoeconomics funding, 14 Nov 2016). In Progress
  • Delivering Excellent Care Every Day for People Living with Advanced Dementia: Namaste Care Intervention UK (Alzheimer's Society Research grant, 21 Mar 2016). In Progress
  • The Frontier Framework: Improving productivity through comparison (NHS England Research grant, 18 Mar 2016). Completed
  • The British Council Coventry University Pharmacoeconomics Programme (British Council Newton-Mosharafa funding, 28 Feb 2016). In Progress
  • Research into Practice PeopLE (RIPPLE) 2: Making Waves (Health Foundation Research grant, 01 Dec 2015). Completed
  • Impact, acceptibility and costeffectiveness of identifying infectious diseases amongst migrants in primary care (NIHR Post Doctoral Fellowship funding, 07 Aug 2015). In Progress
  • Facial remote activity monitoring eyewear (FRAME) (NIHR i4i funding, 18 Mar 2015). Completed
  • Evaluation of Epilepsy Structured Education Programme (Epilepsy Action Research Grant, 24 Nov 2014). Completed


  • MSc in Health Care Ethics (University of Birmingham, 2000)
  • PhD in Health Economics (University of Nottingham, 1996)
  • MSc in Health Economics (University of York, 1993)
  • BA (Hons) in Economics (2.1) (University of York, 1992)
The data on this page was last updated at 04:05 on April 21, 2018.