Darrin Baines

Professor Darrin Baines

  • Professor In Health Economics
Back to top


I am a professor of health economics with a reputation for leading-edge, rigorous and high-quality research, with particular strengths in the economics of health policy and health systems. My research and consultancy activities focus on: (i) evaluating the value of money of new healthcare programmes for NHS decisionmakers, (ii) the relationship between staff and patient well-being, as well as valuing health outcomes, (iii) productivity and the efficient allocation of resources in health systems, and (iv) the economics of technical innovation, with a focus on "technology-enabled pharmacy".

During my career, I have successfully delivered over 70 health economics and health policy projects, with clients including the world's leading pharmaceutical companies, the NHS, charities, the British Council and the NIHR. I have also had over 140 articles published in both academic and trade journals.

I have a strong international profile as an authoritative subject matter expert in health economics and health policy...


Journal Articles

  • Bazan, N.S., Farid, S.F. and Baines, D.L., 2021. Impact of clinical pharmacists on adherence to stress ulcer prophylaxis protocol in critically ill Egyptian patients: a comparative study. Drugs and Therapy Perspectives, 37 (1), 35-43.
  • Bray, J., Brooker, D., Latham, I., Wray, F. and Baines, D., 2020. Costing resource use of the Namaste Care Intervention UK: A novel framework for costing dementia care interventions in care homes. International Psychogeriatrics, 32 (12), 1429-1438.
  • Baines, D., Nørgaard, L.S., Babar, Z.U.D. and Rossing, C., 2020. The Fourth Industrial Revolution: Will it change pharmacy practice? Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 16 (9), 1279-1281.
  • Baines, D.L., 2020. Corrigendum to “The Frontier Framework (and its eight frontier archetypes): A new conceptual approach to representing staff and patient well-being in health systems” [Soc. Sci. Med. 208 (2018) 98–106] (Social Science & Medicine (2018) 208 (98–106), (S0277953618302107), (10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.04.043)). Social Science and Medicine, 258.
  • Baines, D., Brewer, S. and Kay, A., 2020. Political, process and programme failures in the Brexit fiasco: exploring the role of policy deception. Journal of European Public Policy, 27 (5), 742-760.
  • Baines, D. and Curtis, B.L., 2019. Must Antiques Be Technically Excellent? A Rejoinder to Killin. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 77 (1), 83-85.
  • Fulton, E., Baines, D. and Bartle, N., 2019. Underage drinking as a natural part of growing up: a UK study of parental beliefs. Drugs and Alcohol Today, 19 (3), 220-229.
  • Hasan, S.S., Kow, C.S., Dawoud, D., Mohamed, O., Baines, D. and Babar, Z.U.D., 2019. Pharmaceutical Policy Reforms to Regulate Drug Prices in Asia Pacific Region: The Case of Australia, China, India, Malaysia, New Zealand, and South Korea. Value in Health Regional Issues, 18, 18-23.
  • Kay, A. and Baines, D., 2019. Evolutionary approaches to the concept of drift in policy studies. Critical Policy Studies, 13 (2), 174-189.
  • Pareek, M., Baines, D. et al., 2019. Community-based testing of migrants for infectious diseases (COMBAT-ID): Impact, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of identifying infectious diseases among migrants in primary care: Protocol for an interrupted time-series, qualitative and health economic analysis. BMJ Open, 9 (3).
  • Farid, S., Elmahdawy, M. and Baines, D., 2019. A Systematic Review on the Extent and Quality of Pharmacoeconomic Publications in Egypt. Clinical Drug Investigation, 39 (2), 157-168.
  • Baines, D., Bates, I., Bader, L., Hale, C. and Schneider, P., 2018. Conceptualising production, productivity and technology in pharmacy practice: A novel framework for policy, education and research. Human Resources for Health, 16 (1).
  • Strickland-Hodge, B., Kennedy, M.C. and Baines, D., 2018. Pharmacist prescribing in England: acting on history to address current challenges in pharmacy practice. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 48 (4), 372-376.
  • Baines, D., Gahir, I.K., Hussain, A., Khan, A.J., Schneider, P., Hasan, S.S. and Babar, Z.U.D., 2018. A scoping review of the quality and the design of evaluations of mobile health, telehealth, smart pump and monitoring technologies performed in a pharmacy-related setting. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 9 (JUL).
  • Hasan, S.S., Kow, C.S., Curley, L.E., Baines, D.L. and Babar, Z.U.D., 2018. Economic evaluation of prescribing conventional and newer oral anticoagulants in older adults. Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research, 18 (4), 371-377.
  • Baines, D.L., 2018. The Frontier Framework (and its eight Frontier Archetypes): A new conceptual approach to representing staff and patient well-being in health systems. Social Science and Medicine, 208, 98-106.
  • Bayley, J., Baines, D. and Brown, K., 2017. Developing the evidence-base for school sex education programmes: Contributions of an augmented Theory of Planned Behaviour, gender and school year across three contraceptive methods. Sexual Health.
  • Kellezi, B., Baines, D.L., Coupland, C., Beckett, K., Barnes, J., Sleney, J., Christie, N. and Kendrick, D., 2016. The impact of injuries on health service resource use and costs in primary and secondary care in the English NHS. Journal of Public Health (United Kingdom), 38 (4), e464-e471.
  • Curtis, B.L. and Baines, D., 2016. What Is an Antique? Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 74 (1), 75-86.
  • Sabry, N., Dawoud, D., Alansary, A., Hounsome, N. and Baines, D., 2015. Evaluation of a protocol-based intervention to promote timely switching from intravenous to oral paracetamol for post-operative pain management: An interrupted time series analysis. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 21 (6), 1081-1088.
  • Baines, D., 2015. Community pharmacies deserve a renaissance. International Pharmacy Journal.
  • Baines, D., 2015. Dispensing: It's time to let it go. Pharmaceutical Journal, 294 (7847), 113-114.
  • Wilson, A., O'Hare, J.P., Hardy, A., Raymond, N., Szczepura, A., Crossman, R., Baines, D., Khunti, K., Kumar, S. and Saravanan, P., 2014. Evaluation of the clinical and cost effectiveness of intermediate care clinics for diabetes (ICCD): A multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial. PLoS ONE, 9 (4).
  • Walker, K.F., Cohen, A.L., Walker, S.H., Allen, K.M., Baines, D.L. and Thornton, J.G., 2014. The dangers of the day of birth. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 121 (6), 714-718.
  • Armstrong, N. et al., 2012. A cluster randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Intermediate Care Clinics for Diabetes (ICCD): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 13.
  • Baines, D., 2008. The reforms of pharmacy in England are novations and replacements. Pharmaceutical Journal, 281 (7530), 629-630.
  • Baines, D., 2008. Are pharmacists being engineered? Pharmaceutical Journal, 281 (7516), 221-222.
  • Baines, D., 2008. Has pharmacy run out of time? Pharmaceutical Journal, 281 (7509), 21-23.
  • Baines, D., 2005. Is there an appropriate framework for examining UK pharmacy practice? Pharmaceutical Journal, 275 (7378), 687-688.
  • Baines, D.L., 2005. Community pharmacy needs magical thinkers to help secure its future? Pharmaceutical Journal, 275 (7365), 285-286.
  • Baines, D. and Hale, C., 2005. New framework for analysing practice? Pharmaceutical Journal, 274 (7332), 56-57.
  • Baines, D. and Hale, C., 2004. New apothecaries: How pharmacists can protect their independence in the NHS. Pharmaceutical Journal, 273 (7324), 684-685.
  • Baines, D. and Hale, C., 2004. How to build a professional network. Pharmaceutical Journal, 273 (7313), 258-259.
  • Baines, D. and Hale, C., 2004. Use network theory to develop services. Pharmaceutical Journal, 273 (7312), 222-223.
  • Baines, D. and Hale, C., 2004. How should community pharmacists be paid under the new contract? Pharmaceutical Journal, 273 (7309), 119-120.
  • Baines, D. and Hale, C., 2004. Pharmacy economics: Are proposals for a national contract already redundant? Pharmaceutical Journal, 273 (7308), 89-90.
  • Baines, D., Kay, A., Hale, C. and Goodyer, L., 2003. OFT the beaten track? Pharmaceutical Journal, 270 (7233), 122-123.
  • Whynes, D.K. and Baines, D.L., 2002. Primary care physicians' attitudes to health care reform in England. Health Policy, 60 (2), 111-132.
  • Baines, D.L., 2001. A healthy disposition? The use and limitations of the characteristics approach to general practice research. British Journal of General Practice, 51 (470), 749-752.
  • Kay, A. and Baines, D., 2000. The house of commons health select committee's report on generic prices - Implications for primary care prescribing. Pharmaceutical Journal, 265 (7121), 689-691.
  • Smith, J., Regen, E., Shapiro, J. and Baines, D., 2000. National evaluation of general practitioner commissioning pilots: Lessons for primary care groups. British Journal of General Practice, 50 (455), 469-472.
  • Avery, A.J., Rodgers, S., Heron, T., Crombie, R., Whynes, D., Pringle, M., Baines, D., Petchey, R. and Cole, T.J., 2000. A prescription for improvement? An observational study to identify how general practices vary in their growth in prescribing costs. BMJ, 321 (7256), 276-281.
  • Baines, D.L., Rafferty, J.P. and McLeod, H.S.T., 2000. A survey of english NHS prescribing advisers'roles, and their views on improving prescribing in the new NHS. Pharmaceutical Journal, 264 (7091), 557-559.
  • Baines, D.L. and Parry, D.J., 2000. Analysis of the ability of the new needs adjustment formula to improve the setting of weighted capitation prescribing budgets in English general practice. British Medical Journal, 320 (7230), 288-290.
  • Kay, A. and Baines, D., 2000. The rapid increase in generic prices in the UK: A failure of competition or regulation? Public Money and Management, 20 (3), 35-38.
  • Walsh, N., Huntington, J., Barnes, M., Baines, D. and Rogers, H., 2000. Personal medical services. Friends and relations. The Health service journal, 110 (5717), 28-29.
  • Baines, D. and Whynes, D., 1998. The use of the ASTRO-PU and the ASTRO(97)-PU in the setting of prescribing budgets in English general practice. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 23 (3), 229-234.
  • Baines, D.L., Tolley, K.H. and Whynes, D.K., 1998. The ethics of resource allocation: The views of general practitioners in Lincolnshire, U.K. Social Science and Medicine, 47 (10), 1555-1564.
  • Bates, J.M., Baines, D.L. and Whynes, D.K., 1998. Assessing efficiency in general practice: An application of data envelopment analysis. Health Services Management Research, 11 (2), 103-108.
  • Whynes, D.K. and Baines, D.L., 1998. Income-based incentives in UK general practice. Health Policy, 43 (1), 15-31.
  • Baines, D. and Couper, N., 1998. Primary care groups. The cultivated commissioner. The Health service journal, 108 (5602), 26-27.
  • Baines, D.L., 1997. Over-the-counter drugs and prescribing in general practice. British Journal of General Practice, 47 (417), 221-224.
  • Whynes, D.K., Baines, D.L. and Tolley, K.H., 1997. Prescribing costs in UK general practice: The impact of hard budget constraints. Applied Economics, 29 (3), 393-399.
  • Baines, D.L., Brigham, P., Phillips, D.R., Tolley, K.H. and Whynes, D.K., 1997. GP fundholding and prescribing in UK general practice: Evidence from two rural, English Family Health Services Authorities. Public Health, 111 (5), 321-325.
  • Whynes, D.K., Baines, D.L. and Tolley, K.H., 1997. Gp fundholding and the costs of prescribing; further results. Journal of Public Health (United Kingdom), 19 (1), 18-22.
  • Baines, D.L., Whynes, D.K. and Tolley, K.H., 1997. General practitioner fundholding and prescribing expenditure control. Evidence from a rural English health authority. PharmacoEconomics, 11 (4), 350-358.
  • Baines, D. and Whynes, D., 1997. Prescribing. Saving graces. The Health service journal, 107 (5578), 24-25.
  • Whynes, D.K. and Baines, D.L., 1996. Explaining variations in the frequency of night visits in general practice. Family Practice, 13 (2), 174-178.
  • Bates, J.M., Baines, D. and Whynes, D.K., 1996. Measuring the efficiency of prescribing by general practitioners. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 47 (12), 1443-1451.
  • Whynes, D. and Baines, D., 1996. Predicting activity and workload in general practice from the demographic structure of the practice population. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, 1 (3), 128-134.
  • Baines, D.L. and Whynes, D.K., 1996. Selection bias in GP fundholding. Health Economics, 5 (2), 129-140.
  • Baines, D.L., Tolley, K.H. and Whynes, D.K., 1996. The costs of prescribing in dispensing practices. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 21 (5), 343-348.
  • Whynes, D.K., Baines, D.L. and Tolley, K.H., 1996. Explaining variations in general practice prescribing costs per ASTRO-PU (age, sex, and temporary resident originated prescribing unit). British Medical Journal, 312 (7029), 488-489.
  • Whynes, D.K., Baines, D.L. and Tolley, K.H., 1995. GP fundholding and the costs of prescribing. Journal of Public Health, 17 (3), 323-329.


  • Baines, D. and Babar, Z.U.D., 2019. Technology and pharmacy: Theory, practice, and the future vision. Encyclopedia of Pharmacy Practice and Clinical Pharmacy. 211-219.
  • Baines, D., 2018. High-Cost Medicines in England. In Babar Z. (2018). Equitable Access to High-Cost Pharmaceuticals. Equitable Access to High-Cost Pharmaceuticals. Elsevier.
  • Baines, D., 2018. High-Cost Medicines in England. Equitable Access to High-Cost Pharmaceuticals. 23-34.
  • Dawoud, D.M. and Baines, D.L., 2017. Economic Evaluation and Its Types. Economic Evaluation of Pharmacy Services. 99-119.


  • Baines, D., 2017. Technology-enabled pharmacy: the future for pharmacists? In: Future University 4th International Conference of Pharmaceutical Sciences 31 January-2 February 2017 Cairio, Egypt.
  • Breedon, P., Watts, P., Cox, G., Szczepura, A., Baines, D., Johnson, K., Venables, V. and Nduka, C., 2017. F.R.A.M.E - Facial remote activity monitoring eyewear. 207-211.
  • Baines, D., 2016. Restructuring of provincial health systems, search for future healthcare model in Pakistan. In: International Conference on Business Management 26-27 October 2016 Islamabad.
  • Szczepura, A., Saravanan, P., Baines, D., Petrou, S., Crossman, R., Hardy, A., Raymond, N., Wilson, A., O'Hare, J.P. and Grp, I.C.C.D.S., 2012. Cost-effectiveness of intermediate care clinics for diabetes (ICCD): findings of a UK cluster randomised trial. S417.
  • Hale, C. and Baines, D., 2004. New European policy could abolish control of entry whatever NHS wants. 600-601.

Invited Lectures

  • Role of HEOR in Decision Making, Dubai, UAE, 19 Sep 2018 more
  • The renaissance of community pharmacy, Glasgow, 02 Sep 2018 more
  • Workforce, technology and pharmacy practice, Lisbon, Portugal, 25 Jun 2018 more
  • Health economics in the project, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 14 Jun 2018 more
  • A dramaturgical framework of scams, National University of Singapore, 14 Jan 2018 more
  • The role of scams in populist policy-making, Melbourne, Australia, 25 Sep 2017 more
  • Digitalisation and impact on pharmacy, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 10 Sep 2017 more
  • Facial Remote Activity Monitoring Eyewear, Lisbon, Portugal, 21 Jul 2017 more
  • Technology-enabled pharmacy: the future for pharma, Cairio, Egypt, 31 Jan 2017 more
  • Technology-enabled pharmacy, Cairio, Egypt, 14 Jan 2017 more
  • Managing cost calculation in implementation, Seville, Spain, 19 Nov 2016 more
  • Restructuring of provincial health systems, NUST, Islamabad, 26 Oct 2016 more
  • Big Data, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 28 Aug 2016 more
  • Economics of dengue vector control, De La Salle University, Philippines, 07 Jul 2016 more


  • The UK-China Health and Economy Partnership: Project extension. (British Council, 01 Oct 2018). In Progress
  • Pharmacoeconomics development in Egypt (British Council, 01 Oct 2018). In Progress
  • Mapping Invention for Innovation (NIHR Central Commissioning Facility, 15 Nov 2016). Completed
  • The UK-China Health and Economy Partnership: A novel knowledge transfer partnership promoting long-term collaboration in pharmacoeconomics (British Council GSK Pharmacoeconomics funding, 14 Nov 2016). In Progress
  • Delivering Excellent Care Every Day for People Living with Advanced Dementia: Namaste Care Intervention UK (Alzheimer's Society Research grant, 21 Mar 2016). In Progress
  • The Frontier Framework: Improving productivity through comparison (NHS England Research grant, 18 Mar 2016). Completed
  • The British Council Coventry University Pharmacoeconomics Programme (British Council Newton-Mosharafa funding, 28 Feb 2016). In Progress
  • Research into Practice PeopLE (RIPPLE) 2: Making Waves (Health Foundation Research grant, 01 Dec 2015). Completed
  • Impact, acceptibility and costeffectiveness of identifying infectious diseases amongst migrants in primary care (NIHR Post Doctoral Fellowship funding, 07 Aug 2015). In Progress
  • Facial remote activity monitoring eyewear (FRAME) (NIHR i4i funding, 18 Mar 2015). Completed
  • Evaluation of Epilepsy Structured Education Programme (Epilepsy Action Research Grant, 24 Nov 2014). Completed


  • MSc in Health Care Ethics (University of Birmingham, 2000)
  • PhD in Health Economics (University of Nottingham, 1996)
  • MSc in Health Economics (University of York, 1993)
  • BA (Hons) in Economics (2.1) (University of York, 1992)
The data on this page was last updated at 04:55 on March 4, 2021.