In-shoe measurement of plantar blood flow in diabetic subjects: Results of a preliminary clinical evaluation

This source preferred by Jon Cobb

Authors: Claremont, D.J. and Cobb, J.E.

http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/0967-3334/23/2/305/

Journal: Physiological Measurement

Volume: 23

Pages: 287-299

ISSN: 0967-3334

DOI: 10.1088/0967-3334/23/2/305

The findings of clinical pilot study (n = 9 subjects) using a new laser Doppler sensor for assessing blood flux in plantar skin tissue are described. Cutaneous blood perfusion was recorded under the first metatarsal head (right foot) in standing and walking. The sensor was located in a measurement shoe custom made for each test subject. The test group comprised diabetic patients (type II) with vascular (n = 3) or neuropathic (n = 3) complications and three controls. All subjects were Caucasian males and in the age range considered particularly at risk of diabetic foot problems (mean 61 years, 51–72 years).

Following static loading for 2, 3 and 4 min the blood flux response increased rapidly in the control (mean = 10 s) and neuropathic (mean = 18 s) groups to a well-defined, peak blood flow. For the vascular group, the blood flux response was typically a slower rise (mean = 30 s) to a poorly defined peak blood flow value. Due to movement artifact a reliable signal could only be obtained for the swing phase of gait during which blood flux was observed to increase linearly. This was interpreted as reperfusion of the tissue following unloading. The rates of reperfusion expressed in arbitrary units (of blood flux) per millisecond (au ms−1) were 6.1–7.9 au ms−1 for the control, 4–6.2 au ms−1 for the vascular and 2.3–4.5 au ms−1 for the neuropathic groups.

The feasibility of assessing the microcirculation of the plantar skin under conditions of static and dynamic loading, with the foot in-shoe, has been demonstrated for the first time. The results suggest that abnormal responses may be obtained from asymptomatic feet of diabetic patients with vascular and/or neuropathic complications. This method of assessment could be of use in predicting the occurrence of ulceration in the diabetic foot.

This data was imported from PubMed:

Authors: Cobb, J.E. and Claremont, D.J.

Journal: Physiol Meas

Volume: 23

Issue: 2

Pages: 287-299

ISSN: 0967-3334

The findings of clinical pilot study (n = 9 subjects) using a new laser Doppler sensor for assessing blood flux in plantar skin tissue are described. Cutaneous blood perfusion was recorded under the first metatarsal head (right foot) in standing and walking. The sensor was located in a measurement shoe custom made for each test subject. The test group comprised diabetic patients (type II) with vascular (n = 3) or neuropathic (n = 3) complications and three controls. All subjects were Caucasian males and in the age range considered particularly at risk of diabetic foot problems (mean 61 years, 51-72 years). Following static loading for 2, 3 and 4 min the blood.flux response increased rapidly in the control (mean = 10 s) and neuropathic (mean = 18 s) groups to a well-defined, peak blood flow. For the vascular group. the blood flux response was typically a slower rise (mean = 30 s) to a poorly defined peak blood flow value. Due to movement artifact a reliable signal could only be obtained for the swing phase of gait during which blood flux was observed to increase linearly. This was interpreted as reperfusion of the tissue following unloading. The rates of reperfusion expressed in arbitrary units (of blood flux) per millisecond (au ms(-1)) were 6.1-7.9 au ms(-1) for the control, 4-6.2 au ms- for the vascular and 2.3-4.5 au ms(-1) for the neuropathic groups. The feasibility of assessing the microcirculation of the plantar skin under conditions of static and dynamic loading, with the foot in-shoe, has been demonstrated for the first time. The results suggest that abnormal responses may be obtained from asymptomatic feet of diabetic patients with vascular and/or neuropathic complications. This method of assessment could be of use in predicting the occurrence of ulceration in the diabetic foot.

This data was imported from Scopus:

Authors: Cobb, J.E. and Claremont, D.J.

Journal: Physiological Measurement

Volume: 23

Issue: 2

Pages: 287-299

ISSN: 0967-3334

DOI: 10.1088/0967-3334/23/2/305

The findings of clinical pilot study (n = 9 subjects) using a new laser Doppler sensor for assessing blood flux in plantar skin tissue are described. Cutaneous blood perfusion was recorded under the first metatarsal head (right foot) in standing and walking. The sensor was located in a measurement shoe custom made for each test subject. The test group comprised diabetic patients (type II) with vascular (n = 3) or neuropathic (n = 3) complications and three controls. All subjects were Caucasian males and in the age range considered particularly at risk of diabetic foot problems (mean 61 years, 51-72 years). Following static loading for 2, 3 and 4 min the blood flux response increased rapidly in the control (mean = 10 s) and neuropathic (mean = 18 s) groups to a well-defined, peak blood flow. For the vascular group, the blood flux response was typically a slower rise (mean = 30 s) to a poorly defined peak blood flow value. Due to movement artifact a reliable signal could only be obtained for the swing phase of gait during which blood flux was observed to increase linearly. This was interpreted as reperfusion of the tissue following unloading. The rates of reperfusion expressed in arbitrary units (of blood flux) per millisecond (au ms -1 ) were 6.1-7.9 au ms -1 for the control, 4-6.2 au ms -1 for the vascular and 2.3-4.5 au ms -1 for the neuropathic groups. The feasibility of assessing the microcirculation of the plantar skin under conditions of static and dynamic loading, with the foot in-shoe, has been demonstrated for the first time. The results suggest that abnormal responses may be obtained from asymptomatic feet of diabetic patients with vascular and/or neuropathic complications. This method of assessment could be of use in predicting the occurrence of ulceration in the diabetic foot.

This data was imported from Europe PubMed Central:

Authors: Cobb, J.E. and Claremont, D.J.

Journal: Physiological measurement

Volume: 23

Issue: 2

Pages: 287-299

eISSN: 1361-6579

ISSN: 0967-3334

The findings of clinical pilot study (n = 9 subjects) using a new laser Doppler sensor for assessing blood flux in plantar skin tissue are described. Cutaneous blood perfusion was recorded under the first metatarsal head (right foot) in standing and walking. The sensor was located in a measurement shoe custom made for each test subject. The test group comprised diabetic patients (type II) with vascular (n = 3) or neuropathic (n = 3) complications and three controls. All subjects were Caucasian males and in the age range considered particularly at risk of diabetic foot problems (mean 61 years, 51-72 years). Following static loading for 2, 3 and 4 min the blood.flux response increased rapidly in the control (mean = 10 s) and neuropathic (mean = 18 s) groups to a well-defined, peak blood flow. For the vascular group. the blood flux response was typically a slower rise (mean = 30 s) to a poorly defined peak blood flow value. Due to movement artifact a reliable signal could only be obtained for the swing phase of gait during which blood flux was observed to increase linearly. This was interpreted as reperfusion of the tissue following unloading. The rates of reperfusion expressed in arbitrary units (of blood flux) per millisecond (au ms(-1)) were 6.1-7.9 au ms(-1) for the control, 4-6.2 au ms- for the vascular and 2.3-4.5 au ms(-1) for the neuropathic groups. The feasibility of assessing the microcirculation of the plantar skin under conditions of static and dynamic loading, with the foot in-shoe, has been demonstrated for the first time. The results suggest that abnormal responses may be obtained from asymptomatic feet of diabetic patients with vascular and/or neuropathic complications. This method of assessment could be of use in predicting the occurrence of ulceration in the diabetic foot.

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