Enabling ecotourism: Principles, challenges and achievements from Tambopata, Peru
Authors: Hill, J., Hill, R. and De Sausmarez, N.
International tourism has been recognized since the 1960s as offering substantial economic and socio-cultural benefits to developing economies, particularly with regard to foreign exchange revenue, regional development and local employment opportunities (Wunder, 2000). Peru is classified as an upper-middle-income economy, with a GNI per capita of $6,060 in 2012 (World Bank, 2014). In 2013, the direct contribution of tourism to GDP was 3.5 per cent and to employment was 2.4 per cent, while the total contribution of tourism and travel to each was 9.3 per cent and 7.7 per cent, respectively (World Travel and Tourism Council, 2014). Tourism in Peru has traditionally been based on its cultural and historical sites, but there are currently moves to diversify its products and markets (Loverseed, 2010). Ecotourism to the more remote parts of the country is viewed as an opportunity not only to attract a new market, but to spread the benefits of tourism more widely through the population.