The impact of chewing gum resistance on immediate free recall

This source preferred by Andrew Johnson

Authors: Rickman, S., Johnson, A.J. and Miles, C.

Journal: British Journal of Psychology

ISSN: 0007-1269

DOI: 10.1111/j.2044-8295.2012.02124.x

Although the facilitative effects of chewing gum on free recall have proved contentious (e.g. Wilkinson et al., 2002; Tucha et al., 2004), there are strong physiological grounds e.g. increased cerebral activity and blood-flow following the act of mastication, to suppose facilitation. The present study manipulated resistance to mastication i.e., chewing 4 pellets versus 1 pellet of gum, with the assumption that increased resistance will accentuate cerebral activity and blood-flow. Additionally, chewing rate was recorded for all participants. In a within-participants design, participants performed a series of immediate free recall tasks whilst chewing gum at learning (1 or 4 pellets) and recall (1 or 4 pellets). Increased chewing resistance was not associated with increased memory performance, despite consistent chewing rates for both the 1 pellet and 4 pellet conditions at both learning and recall. However, a pattern of recall consistent with context-dependent memory was observed. Here, participants who chewed the equivalent number of gum pellets at both learning and recall experienced significantly superior word recall compared to those conditions where the number of gum pellets differed.

This data was imported from PubMed:

Authors: Rickman, S., Johnson, A. and Miles, C.

Journal: Br J Psychol

Volume: 104

Issue: 3

Pages: 339-346

eISSN: 2044-8295

DOI: 10.1111/j.2044-8295.2012.02124.x

Although the facilitative effects of chewing gum on free recall have proved contentious (e.g., Tucha, Mecklinger, Maier, Hammerl, & Lange, 2004; Wilkinson, Scholey, & Wesnes, 2002), there are strong physiological grounds, for example, increased cerebral activity and blood flow following the act of mastication, to suppose facilitation. The present study manipulated resistance to mastication, that is, chewing four pellets versus one pellet of gum, with the assumption that increased resistance will accentuate cerebral activity and blood flow. Additionally, chewing rate was recorded for all participants. In a within-participants design, participants performed a series of immediate free recall tasks while chewing gum at learning (one or four pellets) and recall (one or four pellets). Increased chewing resistance was not associated with increased memory performance, despite consistent chewing rates for both the one and four pellet conditions at both learning and recall. However, a pattern of recall consistent with context-dependent memory was observed. Here, participants who chewed the equivalent number of gum pellets at both learning and recall experienced significantly superior word recall compared to those conditions where the number of gum pellets differed.

This data was imported from Scopus:

Authors: Rickman, S., Johnson, A. and Miles, C.

Journal: British Journal of Psychology

Volume: 104

Issue: 3

Pages: 339-346

eISSN: 2044-8295

ISSN: 0007-1269

DOI: 10.1111/j.2044-8295.2012.02124.x

Although the facilitative effects of chewing gum on free recall have proved contentious (e.g., Tucha, Mecklinger, Maier, Hammerl, & Lange, 2004; Wilkinson, Scholey, & Wesnes, 2002), there are strong physiological grounds, for example, increased cerebral activity and blood flow following the act of mastication, to suppose facilitation. The present study manipulated resistance to mastication, that is, chewing four pellets versus one pellet of gum, with the assumption that increased resistance will accentuate cerebral activity and blood flow. Additionally, chewing rate was recorded for all participants. In a within-participants design, participants performed a series of immediate free recall tasks while chewing gum at learning (one or four pellets) and recall (one or four pellets). Increased chewing resistance was not associated with increased memory performance, despite consistent chewing rates for both the one and four pellet conditions at both learning and recall. However, a pattern of recall consistent with context-dependent memory was observed. Here, participants who chewed the equivalent number of gum pellets at both learning and recall experienced significantly superior word recall compared to those conditions where the number of gum pellets differed. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

This data was imported from Web of Science (Lite):

Authors: Rickman, S., Johnson, A. and Miles, C.

Journal: BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY

Volume: 104

Issue: 3

Pages: 339-346

ISSN: 0007-1269

DOI: 10.1111/j.2044-8295.2012.02124.x

This data was imported from Europe PubMed Central:

Authors: Rickman, S., Johnson, A. and Miles, C.

Journal: British journal of psychology (London, England : 1953)

Volume: 104

Issue: 3

Pages: 339-346

ISSN: 0007-1269

Although the facilitative effects of chewing gum on free recall have proved contentious (e.g., Tucha, Mecklinger, Maier, Hammerl, & Lange, 2004; Wilkinson, Scholey, & Wesnes, 2002), there are strong physiological grounds, for example, increased cerebral activity and blood flow following the act of mastication, to suppose facilitation. The present study manipulated resistance to mastication, that is, chewing four pellets versus one pellet of gum, with the assumption that increased resistance will accentuate cerebral activity and blood flow. Additionally, chewing rate was recorded for all participants. In a within-participants design, participants performed a series of immediate free recall tasks while chewing gum at learning (one or four pellets) and recall (one or four pellets). Increased chewing resistance was not associated with increased memory performance, despite consistent chewing rates for both the one and four pellet conditions at both learning and recall. However, a pattern of recall consistent with context-dependent memory was observed. Here, participants who chewed the equivalent number of gum pellets at both learning and recall experienced significantly superior word recall compared to those conditions where the number of gum pellets differed.

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