The effects and toxicity of cathinones from the users' perspectives: A qualitative study

Authors: Assi, S., Gulyamova, N., Kneller, P. and Osselton, D.

Journal: Human Psychopharmacology

Volume: 32

Issue: 3

eISSN: 1099-1077

ISSN: 0885-6222

DOI: 10.1002/hup.2610

Abstract:

Objective: The objective of this study is to explore the users' perspectives regarding the effects and toxicity of cathinones. Methods: A systematic search of Internet discussion forums yielded 303 threads relevant to the research objectives. The threads were analysed by conventional content analysis where concepts were developed from codes and themes. Results: The study identified 3 main themes in relation to cathinone use, effects, and toxicity. The first theme considered the modalities of intake of cathinones in relation to the derivative taken (mainly mephedrone, 3-methylmethcathinone, and methylenedioxypyrovalerone), route of administration (eyeballing, insufflation, smoking, intravenous, oral, rectal, and sublingual), multidrug use, and purity of the cathinone derivative. The second theme characterised the main effects of cathinones, that is, increased energy, euphoria, and empathogenic. Toxic effects were reported regarding the nervous system (anxiety, hallucinations, nervousness, and paranoia), cardiovascular system (angina, myocardial infarction, and tachycardia), skin (discolouration, itching, and allergy), and renal system (difficulty in urination). Drug–drug interactions were also reported including multiple drug use between cathinones, stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens. Conclusions: The Internet discussion forums provide useful sources of information regarding the effects and toxicity of cathinones, which can be taken into account when assessing the safety of drugs.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/29554/

Source: Scopus

The effects and toxicity of cathinones from the users' perspectives: A qualitative study.

Authors: Assi, S., Gulyamova, N., Kneller, P. and Osselton, D.

Journal: Hum Psychopharmacol

Volume: 32

Issue: 3

eISSN: 1099-1077

DOI: 10.1002/hup.2610

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to explore the users' perspectives regarding the effects and toxicity of cathinones. METHODS: A systematic search of Internet discussion forums yielded 303 threads relevant to the research objectives. The threads were analysed by conventional content analysis where concepts were developed from codes and themes. RESULTS: The study identified 3 main themes in relation to cathinone use, effects, and toxicity. The first theme considered the modalities of intake of cathinones in relation to the derivative taken (mainly mephedrone, 3-methylmethcathinone, and methylenedioxypyrovalerone), route of administration (eyeballing, insufflation, smoking, intravenous, oral, rectal, and sublingual), multidrug use, and purity of the cathinone derivative. The second theme characterised the main effects of cathinones, that is, increased energy, euphoria, and empathogenic. Toxic effects were reported regarding the nervous system (anxiety, hallucinations, nervousness, and paranoia), cardiovascular system (angina, myocardial infarction, and tachycardia), skin (discolouration, itching, and allergy), and renal system (difficulty in urination). Drug-drug interactions were also reported including multiple drug use between cathinones, stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens. CONCLUSIONS: The Internet discussion forums provide useful sources of information regarding the effects and toxicity of cathinones, which can be taken into account when assessing the safety of drugs.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/29554/

Source: PubMed

The effects and toxicity of cathinones from the users' perspectives: A qualitative study

Authors: Assi, S., Gulyamova, N., Kneller, P. and Osselton, D.

Journal: HUMAN PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL

Volume: 32

Issue: 3

eISSN: 1099-1077

ISSN: 0885-6222

DOI: 10.1002/hup.2610

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/29554/

Source: Web of Science (Lite)

The effects and toxicity of cathinones from the users' perspectives: A qualitative study.

Authors: Assi, S., Gulyamova, N., Kneller, P. and Osselton, D.

Journal: Human psychopharmacology

Volume: 32

Issue: 3

eISSN: 1099-1077

ISSN: 0885-6222

DOI: 10.1002/hup.2610

Abstract:

Objective

The objective of this study is to explore the users' perspectives regarding the effects and toxicity of cathinones.

Methods

A systematic search of Internet discussion forums yielded 303 threads relevant to the research objectives. The threads were analysed by conventional content analysis where concepts were developed from codes and themes.

Results

The study identified 3 main themes in relation to cathinone use, effects, and toxicity. The first theme considered the modalities of intake of cathinones in relation to the derivative taken (mainly mephedrone, 3-methylmethcathinone, and methylenedioxypyrovalerone), route of administration (eyeballing, insufflation, smoking, intravenous, oral, rectal, and sublingual), multidrug use, and purity of the cathinone derivative. The second theme characterised the main effects of cathinones, that is, increased energy, euphoria, and empathogenic. Toxic effects were reported regarding the nervous system (anxiety, hallucinations, nervousness, and paranoia), cardiovascular system (angina, myocardial infarction, and tachycardia), skin (discolouration, itching, and allergy), and renal system (difficulty in urination). Drug-drug interactions were also reported including multiple drug use between cathinones, stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens.

Conclusions

The Internet discussion forums provide useful sources of information regarding the effects and toxicity of cathinones, which can be taken into account when assessing the safety of drugs.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/29554/

Source: Europe PubMed Central