Quantification of the pressures generated during insertion of an epidural needle in labouring women of varying body mass indices
Authors: Wee, M.Y.K., Isaacs, R.A., Vaughan, N., Dubey, V.N. and Parker, B.
Journal: International Journal of Clinical Anesthesia and Research
Objective: The primary aim of this study was to measure pressure generated on a Tuohy needle during the epidural procedure in labouring women of varying body mass indices (BMI) with a view of utilising the data for the future development of a high fi delity epidural simulator. High-fi delity epidural simulators have a role in improving training and safety but current simulators lack a realistic experience and can be improved.
Methods: This study was approved by the National Research Ethics Service Committee South Central, Portsmouth (REC reference 11/SC/0196). After informed consent epidural needle insertion pressure was measured using a Portex 16-gauge Tuohy needle, loss-of-resistance syringe, a three-way tap, pressure transducer and a custom-designed wireless transmitter. This was performed in four groups of labouring women, stratifi ed according to BMI kg/m2: 18-24.9; 25-34.9; 35-44.9 and >=45. One-way ANOVA was used to compare difference in needle insertion pressure between the BMI groups. A paired t-test was performed between BMI group 18-24.9 and the three other BMI groups. Ultrasound images of the lumbar spine were undertaken prior to the epidural procedure and lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed within 72h post-delivery.
These images will be used in the development of a high fi delity epidural simulator.
Results: The mean epidural needle insertion pressure of labouring women with BMI 18-24.9 was 461mmHg; BMI 25-34.9 was 430mmHg; BMI 35-44.9 was 415mmHg and BMI >=45 was 376mmHg, (p=0.52).
Conclusion: Although statistically insignifi cant, the study did show a decreasing trend of epidural insertion pressure with increasing body mass indices.