Ground reaction force, spinal kinematics and their relationship to lower back pain and injury in cricket fast bowling: A review

Authors: Senington, B., Lee, R.Y. and Williams, J.M.

Journal: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation

Volume: 31

Issue: 4

Pages: 671-683

eISSN: 1878-6324

ISSN: 1053-8127

DOI: 10.3233/BMR-170851

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Fast bowlers display a high risk of lower back injury and pain. Studies report factors that may increase this risk, however exact mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To provide a contemporary analysis of literature, up to April 2016, regarding fast bowling, spinal kinematics, ground reaction force (GRF), lower back pain (LBP) and pathology. METHOD: Key terms including biomechanics, bowling, spine and injury were searched within MEDLINE, Google Scholar, SPORTDiscuss, Science Citation Index, OAIster, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Science Direct and Scopus. Following application of inclusion criteria, 56 studies (reduced from 140) were appraised for quality and pooled for further analysis. RESULTS: Twelve times greater risk of lumbar injury was reported in bowlers displaying excessive shoulder counter-rotation (SCR), however SCR is a surrogate measure which may not describe actual spinal movement. Little is known about LBP specifically. Weighted averages of 5.8 ± 1.3 times body weight (BW) vertically and 3.2 ± 1.1 BW horizontally were calculated for peak GRF during fast bowling. No quantitative synthesis of kinematic data was possible due to heterogeneity of reported results. CONCLUSIONS: Fast bowling is highly injurious especially with excessive SCR. Studies adopted similar methodologies, constrained to laboratory settings. Future studies should focus on methods to determine biomechanics during live play.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/30505/

Source: Scopus

Ground reaction force, spinal kinematics and their relationship to lower back pain and injury in cricket fast bowling: A review.

Authors: Senington, B., Lee, R.Y. and Williams, J.M.

Journal: J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil

Volume: 31

Issue: 4

Pages: 671-683

eISSN: 1878-6324

DOI: 10.3233/BMR-170851

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Fast bowlers display a high risk of lower back injury and pain. Studies report factors that may increase this risk, however exact mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To provide a contemporary analysis of literature, up to April 2016, regarding fast bowling, spinal kinematics, ground reaction force (GRF), lower back pain (LBP) and pathology. METHOD: Key terms including biomechanics, bowling, spine and injury were searched within MEDLINE, Google Scholar, SPORTDiscuss, Science Citation Index, OAIster, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Science Direct and Scopus. Following application of inclusion criteria, 56 studies (reduced from 140) were appraised for quality and pooled for further analysis. RESULTS: Twelve times greater risk of lumbar injury was reported in bowlers displaying excessive shoulder counter-rotation (SCR), however SCR is a surrogate measure which may not describe actual spinal movement. Little is known about LBP specifically. Weighted averages of 5.8 ± 1.3 times body weight (BW) vertically and 3.2 ± 1.1 BW horizontally were calculated for peak GRF during fast bowling. No quantitative synthesis of kinematic data was possible due to heterogeneity of reported results. CONCLUSIONS: Fast bowling is highly injurious especially with excessive SCR. Studies adopted similar methodologies, constrained to laboratory settings. Future studies should focus on methods to determine biomechanics during live play.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/30505/

Source: PubMed

Ground reaction force, spinal kinematics and their relationship to lower back pain and injury in cricket fast bowling: A review

Authors: Senington, B., Lee, R.Y. and Williams, J.M.

Journal: JOURNAL OF BACK AND MUSCULOSKELETAL REHABILITATION

Volume: 31

Issue: 4

Pages: 671-683

eISSN: 1878-6324

ISSN: 1053-8127

DOI: 10.3233/BMR-170851

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/30505/

Source: Web of Science (Lite)

Ground reaction force, spinal kinematics and their relationship to lower back pain and injury in cricket fast bowling: A review

Authors: Senington, B., Lee, R.Y. and Williams, J.

Journal: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation

Publisher: IOS Press

ISSN: 1053-8127

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Fast bowlers display a high risk of lower back injury and pain. Studies report factors that may increase this risk, however exact mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To provide a contemporary analysis of literature, up to April 2016, regarding fast bowling, spinal kinematics, ground reaction force (GRF), lower back pain (LBP) and pathology. METHOD: Key terms including biomechanics, bowling, spine and injury were searched within MEDLINE, Google Scholar, SPORTDiscuss, Science Citation Index, OAIster, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Science Direct and Scopus. Following application of inclusion criteria, 56 studies (reduced from 140) were appraised for quality and pooled for further analysis. RESULTS: Twelve times greater risk of lumbar injury was reported in bowlers displaying excessive shoulder counter-rotation (SCR), however SCR is a surrogate measure which may not describe actual spinal movement. Little is known about LBP specifically. Weighted averages of 5.8 ± 1.3 times body weight (BW) vertically and 3.2 ± 1.1 BW horizontally were calculated for peak GRF during fast bowling. No quantitative synthesis of kinematic data was possible due to heterogeneity of reported results. CONCLUSIONS: Fast bowling is highly injurious especially with excessive SCR. Studies adopted similar methodologies, constrained to laboratory settings. Future studies should focus on methods to determine biomechanics during live play.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/30505/

Source: Manual

Ground reaction force, spinal kinematics and their relationship to lower back pain and injury in cricket fast bowling: A review.

Authors: Senington, B., Lee, R.Y. and Williams, J.M.

Journal: Journal of back and musculoskeletal rehabilitation

Volume: 31

Issue: 4

Pages: 671-683

eISSN: 1878-6324

ISSN: 1053-8127

DOI: 10.3233/bmr-170851

Abstract:

BACKGROUND:Fast bowlers display a high risk of lower back injury and pain. Studies report factors that may increase this risk, however exact mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE:To provide a contemporary analysis of literature, up to April 2016, regarding fast bowling, spinal kinematics, ground reaction force (GRF), lower back pain (LBP) and pathology. METHOD:Key terms including biomechanics, bowling, spine and injury were searched within MEDLINE, Google Scholar, SPORTDiscuss, Science Citation Index, OAIster, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Science Direct and Scopus. Following application of inclusion criteria, 56 studies (reduced from 140) were appraised for quality and pooled for further analysis. RESULTS:Twelve times greater risk of lumbar injury was reported in bowlers displaying excessive shoulder counter-rotation (SCR), however SCR is a surrogate measure which may not describe actual spinal movement. Little is known about LBP specifically. Weighted averages of 5.8 ± 1.3 times body weight (BW) vertically and 3.2 ± 1.1 BW horizontally were calculated for peak GRF during fast bowling. No quantitative synthesis of kinematic data was possible due to heterogeneity of reported results. CONCLUSIONS:Fast bowling is highly injurious especially with excessive SCR. Studies adopted similar methodologies, constrained to laboratory settings. Future studies should focus on methods to determine biomechanics during live play.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/30505/

Source: Europe PubMed Central

Ground reaction force, spinal kinematics and their relationship to lower back pain and injury in cricket fast bowling: A review

Authors: Senington, B., Lee, R.Y. and Williams, J.M.

Journal: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation

Volume: 31

Issue: 4

Pages: 671-683

ISSN: 1053-8127

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Fast bowlers display a high risk of lower back injury and pain. Studies report factors that may increase this risk, however exact mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To provide a contemporary analysis of literature, up to April 2016, regarding fast bowling, spinal kinematics, ground reaction force (GRF), lower back pain (LBP) and pathology. METHOD: Key terms including biomechanics, bowling, spine and injury were searched within MEDLINE, Google Scholar, SPORTDiscuss, Science Citation Index, OAIster, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Science Direct and Scopus. Following application of inclusion criteria, 56 studies (reduced from 140) were appraised for quality and pooled for further analysis. RESULTS: Twelve times greater risk of lumbar injury was reported in bowlers displaying excessive shoulder counter-rotation (SCR), however SCR is a surrogate measure which may not describe actual spinal movement. Little is known about LBP specifically. Weighted averages of 5.8 ± 1.3 times body weight (BW) vertically and 3.2 ± 1.1 BW horizontally were calculated for peak GRF during fast bowling. No quantitative synthesis of kinematic data was possible due to heterogeneity of reported results. CONCLUSIONS: Fast bowling is highly injurious especially with excessive SCR. Studies adopted similar methodologies, constrained to laboratory settings. Future studies should focus on methods to determine biomechanics during live play.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/30505/

Source: BURO EPrints