Recycling of overactivated acyls by a type II thioesterase during calcimycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces chartreusis NRRL 3882

This data was imported from PubMed:

Authors: Wu, H., Liang, J., Gou, L., Wu, Q., Liang, W.-J., Zhou, X., Bruce, I.J., Deng, Z. and Wang, Z.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/30858/

Journal: Appl Environ Microbiol

Volume: 84

Issue: 12

eISSN: 1098-5336

DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00587-18

Type II thioesterases typically function as editing enzymes, removing acyl groups that have been misconjugated to acyl carrier proteins during polyketide secondary metabolite biosynthesis as a consequence of biosynthetic errors. Streptomyces chartreusis NRRL 3882 produces the pyrrole polyether ionophoric antibiotic, and we have identified the presence of a putative type II thioesterase-like sequence, calG, within the biosynthetic gene cluster involved in the antibiotic's synthesis. However, targeted gene mutagenesis experiments in which calG was inactivated in the organism did not lead to a decrease in calcimycin production but rather reduced the strain's production of its biosynthetic precursor, cezomycin. Results from in vitro activity assays of purified, recombinant CalG protein indicated that it was involved in the hydrolysis of cezomycin coenzyme A (cezomycin-CoA), as well as other acyl CoAs, but was not active toward 3-S-N-acetylcysteamine (SNAC; the mimic of the polyketide chain-releasing precursor). Further investigation of the enzyme's activity showed that it possessed a cezomycin-CoA hydrolysis Km of 0.67 mM and a kcat of 17.77 min-1 and was significantly inhibited by the presence of Mn2+ and Fe2+ divalent cations. Interestingly, when S. chartreusis NRRL 3882 was cultured in the presence of inorganic nitrite, NaNO2, it was observed that the production of calcimycin rather than cezomycin was promoted. Also, supplementation of S. chartreusis NRRL 3882 growth medium with the divalent cations Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, and Fe2+ had a similar effect. Taken together, these observations suggest that CalG is not responsible for megasynthase polyketide precursor chain release during the synthesis of calcimycin or for retaining the catalytic efficiency of the megasynthase enzyme complex as is supposed to be the function for type II thioesterases. Rather, our results suggest that CalG is a dedicated thioesterase that prevents the accumulation of cezomycin-CoA when intracellular nitrogen is limited, an apparently new and previously unreported function of type II thioesterases.IMPORTANCE Type II thioesterases (TEIIs) are generally regarded as being responsible for removing aberrant acyl groups that block polyketide production, thereby maintaining the efficiency of the megasynthase involved in this class of secondary metabolites' biosynthesis. Specifically, this class of enzyme is believed to be involved in editing misprimed precursors, controlling initial units, providing key intermediates, and releasing final synthetic products in the biosynthesis of this class of secondary metabolites. Our results indicate that the putative TEII CalG present in the calcimycin (A23187)-producing organism Streptomyces chartreusis NRRL 3882 is not important either for the retention of catalytic efficiency of, or for the release of the product compound from, the megasynthase involved in calcimycin biosynthesis. Rather, the enzyme is involved in regulating/controlling the pool size of the calcimycin biosynthetic precursor, cezomycin, by hydrolysis of its CoA derivative. This novel function of CalG suggests a possible additional activity for enzymes belonging to the TEII protein family and promotes better understanding of the overall biosynthetic mechanisms involved in the production of this class of secondary metabolites.

This data was imported from Scopus:

Authors: Wu, H., Liang, J., Gou, L., Wu, Q., Liang, W.J., Zhou, X., Bruce, I.J., Deng, Z. and Wang, Z.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/30858/

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Volume: 84

Issue: 12

eISSN: 1098-5336

ISSN: 0099-2240

DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00587-18

© 2018 American Society for Microbiology. Type II thioesterases typically function as editing enzymes, removing acyl groups that have been misconjugated to acyl carrier proteins during polyketide secondary metabolite biosynthesis as a consequence of biosynthetic errors. Streptomyces chartreusis NRRL 3882 produces the pyrrole polyether ionophoric antibiotic, and we have identified the presence of a putative type II thioesterase-like sequence, calG, within the biosynthetic gene cluster involved in the antibiotic's synthesis. However, targeted gene mutagenesis experiments in which calG was inactivated in the organism did not lead to a decrease in calcimycin production but rather reduced the strain's production of its biosynthetic precursor, cezomycin. Results from in vitro activity assays of purified, recombinant CalG protein indicated that it was involved in the hydrolysis of cezomycin coenzyme A (cezomycin-CoA), as well as other acyl CoAs, but was not active toward 3-S-N-acetylcysteamine (SNAC; the mimic of the polyketide chain-releasing precursor). Further investigation of the enzyme's activity showed that it possessed a cezomycin-CoA hydrolysis Km of 0.67 mM and a kcat of 17.77 min-1 and was significantly inhibited by the presence of Mn2+ and Fe2+ divalent cations. Interestingly, when S. chartreusis NRRL 3882 was cultured in the presence of inorganic nitrite, NaNO2, it was observed that the production of calcimycin rather than cezomycin was promoted. Also, supplementation of S. chartreusis NRRL 3882 growth medium with the divalent cations Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, and Fe2+ had a similar effect. Taken together, these observations suggest that CalG is not responsible for megasynthase polyketide precursor chain release during the synthesis of calcimycin or for retaining the catalytic efficiency of the megasynthase enzyme complex as is supposed to be the function for type II thioesterases. Rather, our results suggest that CalG is a dedicated thioesterase that prevents the accumulation of cezomycin-CoA when intracellular nitrogen is limited, an apparently new and previously unreported function of type II thioesterases.

The data on this page was last updated at 04:53 on April 22, 2019.