The technology-evoked time use rebound effect and its impact on consumer behaviour in tourism.

Authors: Bowden, M. and Kim, S.

Conference: Bournemouth University Business School

Abstract:

Technological solutions to achieve energy efficiency and reduce tourism’s carbon footprint are unlikely to be sufficient alone. This is because monetary savings caused by energy efficiency improvements can, rather unexpectedly, lead to increased energy demand, the phenomenon known as the rebound effect (RE). Time savings from time efficiency technologies can similarly intensify energy consumption, leading to the so- called time use rebound effect (TRE). Efficiency improvement technologies have been employed in tourist transport to save energy and reduce costs and time of travel. Such technologies have allowed tourists more discretionary time to spend, which can intensify energy consumption, thus leading to the potential TRE. Evidence suggests that the (T)RE in tourism can be high but its understanding is limited, therefore calling for an in-depth exploration of the issue. The aim of this study is to investigate the implications of the technology-driven RE in tourism, especially with respect to time, for tourist consumption behaviour in the context of more environmentally sustainable tourism. The (T)RE is conceptualised following the literature review, encapsulating the relevant variables. Using an exploratory sequential mixed methods strategy, this study explores the rebound issue in the holiday context qualitatively with a small sample of study participants and then to develop and test instruments with a larger sample.

The findings from semi-structured interviews reveal that tourist perception/attitudes towards time on holiday are contextual and are influenced by some key factors: unfamiliarity, usual demands, emotions/time awareness and lack of time pressure. The experiences and environments of travel to/from a destination affect how tourists perceive en-route travel time. Survey findings suggest that time savings from faster travel technology can result in tourists’ behavioural changes, i.e. TRE. A range of potential TREs occur depending on such factors as socio-demographic characteristics, holiday preferences and availability of time and money. Tourist time perception/ attitudes as well as time use patterns on holiday are another key factor to influence behavioural changes due to the time savings. Three groups based on psychological values and time use patterns on holiday are identified: the Busy explorer, the Travel time lover and the Quality time seeker. The Busy explorers are most likely to show the potential TRE in most aspects amongst all groups, with implications for increased environmental impacts. They are represented by younger, full/part time committed people or students, who experience time constraints relating to holiday trips.

Based on the findings, the initial conceptual framework of the (T)RE has been refined. The resultant framework can aid in understanding the occurrence of the RE in tourist consumption highlighting the key drivers, influential factors and the key forms of the (T)RE. Suggestions for future research are outlined concerning how to better understand tourist behaviour and to integrate the role of (T)RE in tourism studies for (more) sustainable tourism development.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/32784/

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/35534/

Source: Manual

The technology-evoked time use rebound effect and its impact on pro-environmental consumer behaviour in tourism

Authors: Kim, S., Filimonau, V. and Dickinson, J.E.

Pages: 164-184

Abstract:

The growing awareness of tourism’s environmental impacts has facilitated energy efficiency improvements in all tourism sub-sectors, especially in tourist transport. Further technological improvements are envisaged to save travel time as well as to reduce travel costs. However, the time savings achieved can potentially trigger behavioural responses of tourists that are unexpected and can intensify consumption. Ultimately, this intensified consumption can negate the positive effect of energy efficiency improvements in tourism, the phenomenon known as the time use rebound effect. Existing literature fails to account for this effect as a driver of unsustainable consumer behaviour in tourism. This paper proposes a framework to conceptualise the potential time use rebound effect in tourism and discusses the importance of considering it for better understanding and management of pro-environmental tourist behaviour. The paper elaborates upon the implications of the time use rebound effect for sustainable tourism development. Highlights Discusses the effect of energy efficiency improvements in tourism on consumption Demonstrates this effect is not always positive Conceptualises the rebound effect in tourism with respect to time Discusses how the time use rebound effect can reduce the positive effect of energy efficiency improvements in tourism.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/32784/

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/35534/

Source: BURO EPrints

The technology-evoked time use rebound effect and its impact on consumer behaviour in tourism.

Authors: Kim, S.

Conference: Bournemouth University

Abstract:

Technological solutions to achieve energy efficiency and reduce tourism’s carbon footprint are unlikely to be sufficient alone. This is because monetary savings caused by energy efficiency improvements can, rather unexpectedly, lead to increased energy demand, the phenomenon known as the rebound effect (RE). Time savings from time efficiency technologies can similarly intensify energy consumption, leading to the so- called time use rebound effect (TRE). Efficiency improvement technologies have been employed in tourist transport to save energy and reduce costs and time of travel. Such technologies have allowed tourists more discretionary time to spend, which can intensify energy consumption, thus leading to the potential TRE. Evidence suggests that the (T)RE in tourism can be high but its understanding is limited, therefore calling for an in-depth exploration of the issue. The aim of this study is to investigate the implications of the technology-driven RE in tourism, especially with respect to time, for tourist consumption behaviour in the context of more environmentally sustainable tourism. The (T)RE is conceptualised following the literature review, encapsulating the relevant variables. Using an exploratory sequential mixed methods strategy, this study explores the rebound issue in the holiday context qualitatively with a small sample of study participants and then to develop and test instruments with a larger sample. The findings from semi-structured interviews reveal that tourist perception/attitudes towards time on holiday are contextual and are influenced by some key factors: unfamiliarity, usual demands, emotions/time awareness and lack of time pressure. The experiences and environments of travel to/from a destination affect how tourists perceive en-route travel time. Survey findings suggest that time savings from faster travel technology can result in tourists’ behavioural changes, i.e. TRE. A range of potential TREs occur depending on such factors as socio-demographic characteristics, holiday preferences and availability of time and money. Tourist time perception/ attitudes as well as time use patterns on holiday are another key factor to influence behavioural changes due to the time savings. Three groups based on psychological values and time use patterns on holiday are identified: the Busy explorer, the Travel time lover and the Quality time seeker. The Busy explorers are most likely to show the potential TRE in most aspects amongst all groups, with implications for increased environmental impacts. They are represented by younger, full/part time committed people or students, who experience time constraints relating to holiday trips. Based on the findings, the initial conceptual framework of the (T)RE has been refined. The resultant framework can aid in understanding the occurrence of the RE in tourist consumption highlighting the key drivers, influential factors and the key forms of the (T)RE. Suggestions for future research are outlined concerning how to better understand tourist behaviour and to integrate the role of (T)RE in tourism studies for (more) sustainable tourism development.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/32784/

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/35534/

Source: BURO EPrints