Authors: Swain, I.D., Crook, S.E., Taylor, P.N. and Grant, L.J.


The use of Functional Electrical Stimulation, FES, has received a great amount of publicity in the media over the last two years, concentrating almost exclusively on restoring walking function to patients with spinal cord injuries. Articles often give a false impression of how advanced these techniques are, leading to increased expectations on behalf of the patients and frustration for the therapist and clinicians who are unable to meet the patients' demands. The basic technique of FES is simple and similar to Faradism, a commonly-used physiotherapy treatment, differing only in the characteristics of the applied pulses and the portability of the equipment used. As the name implies it is 'functional' electrical stimulation and hence has to be suitable for the patient to use at home, without constant medical supervision. At present there are a small number of groups working on FES in the United Kingdom. However, its potential is much greater and FES could be used in orthopaedic and neurological rehabilitation both as an active orthosis and as a method of increasing muscle strength.

Source: Scopus


Authors: GRANT, L. and SWAIN, I.

Volume: 9

Pages: 129-131

DOI: 10.3109/03091908509018143

Source: Web of Science (Lite)

Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES).

Authors: Wood, D.E.

Volume: 4th ed

Publisher: Spinal Injuries Association

Source: Manual

Preferred by: Ian Swain