Standard operating procedures for cybercrime investigations: a systematic literature review
Authors: Jeffries, S. and Apeh, E.
Traditional policing involves the identification of a victim and the establishment of an offender via way of an investigation. The investigation seeks to obtain the necessary evidence through the overt or covert collection of the evidence to support a prosecution of the offender. Overt recovery of evidence involves the obtaining of statements from victims and witnesses, CCTV recovery, photographs or videos and the forensic examination of materials for fingerprints or DNA. The covert methods involve the gathering of intelligence through Covert Human Intelligence Sources (CHIS), interception of telecommunications, infiltration of crimes groups and the use of surveillance. These approaches are inherent in policing investigative procedures and have been instilled in police officers from basic training and throughout their policing careers. The advancement in cyberspace has created new challenges for policing. Crime in cyberspace operates in a nontraditional way, and the threats and the vulnerabilities of cyberspace tend to make the use of such traditional techniques in police investigation ineffective when applied against cybercrime and cybercriminals. For example, in offences of incitement and radicalization, the victims are often so far removed from each other that traditional reactive police investigations are likely to fail to identify an offender, their location and those victims before any offences being committed and thereby any potential interventions would be too late to prevent any offences being completed. Therefore, policing needs to consider new procedures that take into account the differences in the cyber landscape and how crime is committed online. This chapter performs a systematic literature review of traditional policing with a view of identifying and proposing new procedures that can be adapted to investigate and gather evidence of cybercrimes.
Standard Operating Procedures for Cybercrime Investigations: A Systematic Literature Review
Authors: Apeh, E. and Jeffries, S.