Frack Off: Climate change, CSR, citizen activism and the shaping of national energy policy
Authors: McQueen, D.
Editors: Farache, F., Grigore, G. and Stancu, A.
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
The chapter explores the often overlooked significance of citizen activism in advancing notions of corporate responsibility and shaping more sustainable energy policies and legislation at the regional, national and transnational level. This idea is developed with respect to the development of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) in the US and Europe. It shows how activists and protestors can play a central role in shifting public attitudes, changing the terms of debate, influencing political policy and shaping national legislation. While such anti-fracking movements may not always be successful, in parts of Europe particularly, they have helped shape national debates and policy outcomes around fracking. The chapter argues that in light of current warnings around the need to shift from fossil fuels to avoid catastrophic impacts of climate change that such protest movements are the only responsible response to corporate and government failures and can be seen as a driver of long-term progress towards a more sustainable and socially responsible energy sector.