Human Factors in Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems: A Case Study of a Smart Automated Transport and Retrieval System (SmartATRS). A Case Study of a Smart Automated Transport and Retrieval System (SmartATRS).
Human Factors are an important component of cyber-physical systems that can be analysed using processes including User Experience, Human Factors Integration and Human-Centred Design. This chapter considers the Smart Automated Transport and Retrieval System (SmartATRS) as a transportation cyber-physical system to assist people with reduced physical ability with transport-powered wheelchairs (powerchairs) in vehicles. The key requirements of SmartATRS are explained, consisting of the system architecture and results of usability evaluations comparing keyfob, touch, joystick, head and smartglass based interaction. This comprises of evaluation design by adopting Human Factors (HF) approaches such as Hierarchical Task Analysis and the application of the System Usability Scale (SUS) and NASA Task Load Index (TLX) to measure usability and workload. A discussion follows to demonstrate the HF challenges centred on cyber-physical systems using SmartATRS as an exemplar. The chapter concludes by outlining future directives including integration of additional interaction modalities and highlighting the need to consider accessibility and universal design of cyber-physical systems. SmartATRS subsequently evolved into a SmartAbility Framework, to recommend technologies for people with reduced physical ability, based on the actions that they can perform independently.