Stressors, social support, and tests of the buffering hypothesis: Effects on psychological responses of injured athletes

This data was imported from PubMed:

Authors: Mitchell, I., Evans, L., Rees, T. and Hardy, L.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/22849/

Journal: Br J Health Psychol

Volume: 19

Issue: 3

Pages: 486-508

eISSN: 2044-8287

DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12046

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article was to examine the main and stress-buffering effect relationships between social support and psychological responses to injury. DESIGN: The article presents two studies, both of which matched social support types with injury stressors. Study 1 used measures of stressors, perception of social support availability, and psychological responses of injured athletes. Study 2 utilized measures of stressors, received social support, and psychological responses of injured athletes. METHODS: During physiotherapy clinic visits, injured athletes (Study 1, N = 319; Study 2, N = 302) completed measures of stressors, social support, and psychological responses to injury. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and moderated hierarchical regression were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: In both studies, CFA suggested adequate model fit for measures of social support and psychological responses to injury. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses in Study 1 revealed significant (p < .05) stress-buffering effects for the perception of available esteem support in relation to restlessness, isolation, and feeling cheated, and the perception of emotional support in relation to isolation. In both studies, moderated hierarchical regression analyses revealed significant (p < .05) main effects for esteem, emotional, and tangible support in relation to restlessness, isolation, and feeling cheated. CONCLUSION: The findings of the current studies enhance our understanding of the stress-buffering effects of social support in relation to injury stressors and psychological responses; that is, the relationships between social support, stressors, and psychological responses to sport injury may differ with regard to received or perceived available support. The findings have important implications for the design of social support interventions with injured athletes aimed at alleviating the detrimental effects of injury stressors. STATEMENT OF CONTRIBUTION: What is already known on this subject? The health, social, and sport-injury related research suggests that social support has the potential to moderate (i.e., buffer) those psychological responses to stress that are detrimental to health and well-being. Despite what is a growing body of empirical research that has explored the role of social support in a sport injury context, there has been a paucity of research that has examined how social support functions in relation to injury-related stressors and psychological responses, particularly with regard to the effect of perceived and received support. In addition, there has been limited regard for current conceptualizations of social support as well as injured athletes, psychological responses in the measurement strategies adopted and measures employed. What does this study add? Enhances our understanding of the stress-buffering effects of perceived and received social support in sport. Provides support for the functional aspects of perceived support when dealing with injury-related stressors. Has important implications for the design of social support interventions that aim to expedite injured athletes successful return to sport.

This data was imported from Scopus:

Authors: Mitchell, I., Evans, L., Rees, T. and Hardy, L.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/22849/

Journal: British Journal of Health Psychology

Volume: 19

Issue: 3

Pages: 486-508

eISSN: 2044-8287

ISSN: 1359-107X

DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12046

Objective The purpose of this article was to examine the main and stress-buffering effect relationships between social support and psychological responses to injury. Design The article presents two studies, both of which matched social support types with injury stressors. Study 1 used measures of stressors, perception of social support availability, and psychological responses of injured athletes. Study 2 utilized measures of stressors, received social support, and psychological responses of injured athletes. Methods During physiotherapy clinic visits, injured athletes (Study 1, N = 319; Study 2, N = 302) completed measures of stressors, social support, and psychological responses to injury. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and moderated hierarchical regression were used to analyse the data. Results In both studies, CFA suggested adequate model fit for measures of social support and psychological responses to injury. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses in Study 1 revealed significant (p <.05) stress-buffering effects for the perception of available esteem support in relation to restlessness, isolation, and feeling cheated, and the perception of emotional support in relation to isolation. In both studies, moderated hierarchical regression analyses revealed significant (p <.05) main effects for esteem, emotional, and tangible support in relation to restlessness, isolation, and feeling cheated. Conclusion The findings of the current studies enhance our understanding of the stress-buffering effects of social support in relation to injury stressors and psychological responses; that is, the relationships between social support, stressors, and psychological responses to sport injury may differ with regard to received or perceived available support. The findings have important implications for the design of social support interventions with injured athletes aimed at alleviating the detrimental effects of injury stressors. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? The health, social, and sport-injury related research suggests that social support has the potential to moderate (i.e., buffer) those psychological responses to stress that are detrimental to health and well-being. Despite what is a growing body of empirical research that has explored the role of social support in a sport injury context, there has been a paucity of research that has examined how social support functions in relation to injury-related stressors and psychological responses, particularly with regard to the effect of perceived and received support. In addition, there has been limited regard for current conceptualizations of social support as well as injured athletes, psychological responses in the measurement strategies adopted and measures employed. What does this study add? Enhances our understanding of the stress-buffering effects of perceived and received social support in sport. Provides support for the functional aspects of perceived support when dealing with injury-related stressors. Has important implications for the design of social support interventions that aim to expedite injured athletes successful return to sport. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

This data was imported from Web of Science (Lite):

Authors: Mitchell, I., Evans, L., Rees, T. and Hardy, L.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/22849/

Journal: BRITISH JOURNAL OF HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY

Volume: 19

Issue: 3

Pages: 486-508

eISSN: 2044-8287

ISSN: 1359-107X

DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12046

This data was imported from Europe PubMed Central:

Authors: Mitchell, I., Evans, L., Rees, T. and Hardy, L.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/22849/

Journal: British journal of health psychology

Volume: 19

Issue: 3

Pages: 486-508

eISSN: 2044-8287

ISSN: 1359-107X

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article was to examine the main and stress-buffering effect relationships between social support and psychological responses to injury. DESIGN: The article presents two studies, both of which matched social support types with injury stressors. Study 1 used measures of stressors, perception of social support availability, and psychological responses of injured athletes. Study 2 utilized measures of stressors, received social support, and psychological responses of injured athletes. METHODS: During physiotherapy clinic visits, injured athletes (Study 1, N = 319; Study 2, N = 302) completed measures of stressors, social support, and psychological responses to injury. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and moderated hierarchical regression were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: In both studies, CFA suggested adequate model fit for measures of social support and psychological responses to injury. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses in Study 1 revealed significant (p < .05) stress-buffering effects for the perception of available esteem support in relation to restlessness, isolation, and feeling cheated, and the perception of emotional support in relation to isolation. In both studies, moderated hierarchical regression analyses revealed significant (p < .05) main effects for esteem, emotional, and tangible support in relation to restlessness, isolation, and feeling cheated. CONCLUSION: The findings of the current studies enhance our understanding of the stress-buffering effects of social support in relation to injury stressors and psychological responses; that is, the relationships between social support, stressors, and psychological responses to sport injury may differ with regard to received or perceived available support. The findings have important implications for the design of social support interventions with injured athletes aimed at alleviating the detrimental effects of injury stressors. STATEMENT OF CONTRIBUTION: What is already known on this subject? The health, social, and sport-injury related research suggests that social support has the potential to moderate (i.e., buffer) those psychological responses to stress that are detrimental to health and well-being. Despite what is a growing body of empirical research that has explored the role of social support in a sport injury context, there has been a paucity of research that has examined how social support functions in relation to injury-related stressors and psychological responses, particularly with regard to the effect of perceived and received support. In addition, there has been limited regard for current conceptualizations of social support as well as injured athletes, psychological responses in the measurement strategies adopted and measures employed. What does this study add? Enhances our understanding of the stress-buffering effects of perceived and received social support in sport. Provides support for the functional aspects of perceived support when dealing with injury-related stressors. Has important implications for the design of social support interventions that aim to expedite injured athletes successful return to sport.

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