Effect of cooling rate and partial removal of yolk on the chilling injury in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos

This data was imported from PubMed:

Authors: Liu, X.H., Zhang, T. and Rawson, D.M.

Journal: Theriogenology

Volume: 55

Issue: 8

Pages: 1719-1731

ISSN: 0093-691X

DOI: 10.1016/s0093-691x(01)00515-5

High chilling sensitivity is one of the main obstacles to successful cryopreservation of zebrafish embryos. So far the nature of the chilling injury in fish embryos has not been clear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of cooling rate and partial removal of yolk on chilling injury in zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish embryos at 64-cell, 50%-epiboly, 6-somite and prim-6 stages were cooled to either 0 degrees C or -5 degrees C at three different cooling rates: slow (0.3 degrees C/min or 1 degree C/min), moderate (30 degrees C/min), and rapid (approximately 300 degrees C/min). After chilling, embryos were warmed in a 26 degrees C water bath, followed by 3-day culturing in EM at 26 +/- 1 degrees C for survival assessment. When embryos were cooled to 0 degrees C for up to 30 min, 64-cell embryos had higher survival after rapid cooling than when they were cooled at a slower rate. When 64-cell embryos were held at -5 degrees C for 1 min, their survival decreased greatly after both slow and rapid cooling. The effect of cooling rate on the survival of 50%-epiboly and 6-somite embryos was not significant after 1 h exposure at 0 degrees C and 1 min exposure at -5 degrees C. However, rapid cooling resulted in significantly lower embryo survival than a cooling rate of 30 degrees C/min or 1 degree C/min after 1 h exposure to 0 degrees C for prim-6 stage or 1 h exposure to -5 degrees C for all stages. Chilling injury in 64-cell embryos appears to be a consequence of exposure time at low temperatures rather than a consequence of rapid cooling. Results also indicate that chilling injury in later stage embryos (50%-epiboly, 6-somite and prim-6) is a consequence of the combination of rapid cooling and exposure time at low temperatures. Dechorionated prim-6 embryos were punctured and about half of yolk was removed. After 24 h culture at 26 +/- 1 degrees C after removal of yolk, the yolk-reduced embryos showed higher embryo survival than did control embryos after rapid cooling to -5 degrees C for 10 to 60 min. Results suggest that cold shock injury after rapid cooling can be mitigated after partial removal of yolk at the prim-6 stage. These findings help us to understand the nature of chilling sensitivity of fish embryos and to develop protocols for their cryopreservation.

This data was imported from Scopus:

Authors: Liu, X.H., Zhang, T. and Rawson, D.M.

Journal: Theriogenology

Volume: 55

Issue: 8

Pages: 1719-1731

ISSN: 0093-691X

DOI: 10.1016/S0093-691X(01)00515-5

High chilling sensitivity is one of the main obstacles to successful cryopreservation of zebrafish embryos. So far the nature of the chilling injury in fish embryos has not been clear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of cooling rate and partial removal of yolk on chilling injury in zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish embryos at 64-cell, 50%-epiboly, 6-somite and prim-6 stages were cooled to either 0°C or -5°C at three different cooling rates: slow (0.3°C/Min or 1°C/min), moderate (30°C/min), and rapid (∼300°C/min). After chilling, embryos were warmed in a 26°C water bath, followed by 3-day culturing in EM at 26 ± 1°C for survival assessment. When embryos were cooled to 0°C for up to 30 min, 64-cell embryos had higher survival after rapid cooling than when they were cooled at a slower rate. When 64-cell embryos were held at -5°C for 1 min, their survival decreased greatly after both slow and rapid cooling. The effect of cooling rate on the survival of 50%-epiboly and 6-somite embryos was not significant after 1 h exposure at 0°C and 1 min exposure at -5°C. However, rapid cooling resulted in significantly lower embryo survival than a cooling rate of 30°C/min or 1°C/min after 1 h exposure to 0°C for prim-6 stage or 1 h exposure to -5°C for all stages. Chilling injury in 64-cell embryos appears to be a consequence of exposure time at low temperatures rather than a consequence of rapid cooling. Results also indicate that chilling injury in later stage embryos (50%-epiboly, 6-somite and prim-6) is a consequence of the combination of rapid cooling and exposure time at low temperatures. Dechorionated prim-6 embryos were punctured and about half of yolk was removed. After 24 h culture at 26 ± 1°C after removal of yolk, the yolk-reduced embryos showed higher embryo survival than did control embryos after rapid cooling to -5°C for 10 to 60 min. Results suggest that cold shock injury after rapid cooling can be mitigated after partial removal of yolk at the prim-6 stage. These findings help us to understand the nature of chilling sensitivity of fish embryos and to develop protocols for their cryopreservation. © 2001 by Elsevier Science Inc.

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