## A path planning approach of 3D manipulators using zenithal gnomic projection and polar piecewise interpolation

**Authors: **Dupac, M.

**Journal:** Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences

**eISSN:** 1099-1476

**ISSN:** 0170-4214

**DOI:** 10.1002/mma.4790

**Abstract:**

© 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. In this paper, the mathematical modeling and trajectory planning of a 3D rotating manipulator composed of a rotating-prismatic joint and multiple rigid links is considered. Possible trajectories of the end effector of the manipulator-following a sequence of 3D target points under the action of 2 external driving torques and an axial force-are modeled using zenithal gnomic projections and polar piecewise interpolants expressed as polynomial Hermite-type functions. Because of the geometry of the manipulator, the time-dependent generalized coordinates are associated with the spherical coordinates named the radial distance related to the manipulator length, and the polar and azimuthal angles describing the left and right and, respectively, up and down motion of the manipulator. The polar trajectories (left and right motion) of the end effector are generated using a inverse geometric transformation applied to the polar piecewise interpolants that approximate the gnomic projective trajectory of the 3D via-points. The gnomic via-points-located on a projective plane situated on the northern hemisphere-are seen from the manipulator base location, which represents the center of rotation of the extensible manipulator. The related azimuthal trajectory (up and down motion) is generated by polar piecewise interpolants on the azimuthal angles. Smoothness of the polygonal trajectory is obtained through the use of piecewise interpolants with continuous derivatives, while the kinematics and dynamics implementation of the model is well suited to computer implementation (easy calculation of kinematics variables) and simulation. To verify the approach and validate the model, a numerical example-implemented in Matlab-is presented, and the results are discussed.

https://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/30347/

**Source:** Scopus

## A path planning approach of 3D manipulators using zenithal gnomic projection and polar piecewise interpolation

**Authors: **Dupac, M.

**Journal:** Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences

**Volume:** 41

**Issue:** 17

**Pages:** 7202-7213

**eISSN:** 1099-1476

**ISSN:** 0170-4214

**DOI:** 10.1002/mma.4790

**Abstract:**

In this paper, the mathematical modeling and trajectory planning of a 3D rotating manipulator composed of a rotating-prismatic joint and multiple rigid links is considered. Possible trajectories of the end effector of the manipulator-following a sequence of 3D target points under the action of 2 external driving torques and an axial force-are modeled using zenithal gnomic projections and polar piecewise interpolants expressed as polynomial Hermite-type functions. Because of the geometry of the manipulator, the time-dependent generalized coordinates are associated with the spherical coordinates named the radial distance related to the manipulator length, and the polar and azimuthal angles describing the left and right and, respectively, up and down motion of themanipulator. The polar trajectories (left and right motion) of the end effector are generated using a inverse geometric transformation applied to the polar piecewise interpolants that approximate the gnomic projective trajectory of the 3D via-points. The gnomic via-points-located on a projective plane situated on the northern hemisphere-are seen fromthemanipulator base location, which represents the center of rotation of the extensible manipulator. The related azimuthal trajectory (up and down motion) is generated by polar piecewise interpolants on the azimuthal angles. Smoothness of the polygonal trajectory is obtained through the use of piecewise interpolants with continuous derivatives, while the kinematics and dynamics implementation of the model is well suited to computer implementation (easy calculation of kinematics variables) and simulation. To verify the approach and validate the model, a numerical example-implemented in Matlab-is presented, and the results are discussed.

https://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/30347/

**Source:** Scopus

## A path planning approach of 3D manipulators using zenithal gnomic projection and polar piecewise interpolation

**Authors: **Dupac, M.

**Journal:** MATHEMATICAL METHODS IN THE APPLIED SCIENCES

**Volume:** 41

**Issue:** 17

**Pages:** 7202-7213

**eISSN:** 1099-1476

**ISSN:** 0170-4214

**DOI:** 10.1002/mma.4790

https://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/30347/

**Source:** Web of Science (Lite)

**Authors: **Dupac, M.

**Editors: **Vigo-Aguiar, J.

**Journal:** Mathematical methods in the applied sciences

**Volume:** 41

**Pages:** 7202-7213

**Publisher:** John Wiley & Sons Inc.

**ISSN:** 0170-4214

**DOI:** 10.1002/mma.4790

**Abstract:**

https://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/30347/

https://doi.org/10.1002/mma.4790

**Source:** Manual

## A path planning approach of 3D manipulators using zenithal gnomic projection and polar piecewise interpolation.

**Authors: **Dupac, M.

**Journal:** Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences

**Volume:** 41

**Issue:** 17

**Pages:** 7202-7213

**ISSN:** 0170-4214

**Abstract:**

In this paper, the mathematical modeling and trajectory planning of a 3D rotating manipulator composed of a rotating-prismatic joint and multiple rigid links is considered. Possible trajectories of the end effector of the manipulator—following a sequence of 3D target points under the action of 2 external driving torques and an axial force—are modeled using zenithal gnomic projections and polar piecewise interpolants expressed as polynomial Hermite-type functions. Because of the geometry of the manipulator, the time-dependent generalized coordinates are associated with the spherical coordinates named the radial distance related to the manipulator length, and the polar and azimuthal angles describing the left and right and, respectively, up and down motion of the manipulator. The polar trajectories (left and right motion) of the end effector are generated using a inverse geometric transformation applied to the polar piecewise interpolants that approximate the gnomic projective trajectory of the 3D via-points. The gnomic via-points—located on a projective plane situated on the northern hemisphere—are seen from the manipulator base location, which represents the center of rotation of the extensible manipulator. The related azimuthal trajectory (up and down motion) is generated by polar piecewise interpolants on the azimuthal angles. Smoothness of the polygonal trajectory is obtained through the use of piecewise interpolants with continuous derivatives, while the kinematics and dynamics implementation of the model is well suited to computer implementation (easy calculation of kinematics variables) and simulation. To verify the approach and validate the model, a numerical example—implemented in Matlab—is presented, and the results are discussed.

https://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/30347/

**Source:** BURO EPrints