Content and Face Validity Assessment of the Sim-K Haptic-Feedback Enhanced Total Knee Replacement Virtual Reality Simulator

Authors: Newman, S., Gulati, V., Bahadori, S., Wainwright, T. and Middleton, R.

Journal: The Internet Journal of Orthopedic Surgery

Volume: 27

Issue: 1

Publisher: Internet Scientific Publications, LLC

ISSN: 1531-2968



Virtual reality simulators for open orthopaedic procedures, such as total knee replacement (TKR), are uncommon compared to arthroscopic or fluoroscopic procedures. The Ossim Sim-K is to our knowledge the first virtual reality TKR simulator with haptic feedback and we sought to investigate the face and content validity of the first iteration of this device.


Thirty members of the local orthopaedic department were recruited for this study. After completing a full simulation, each candidate completed a questionnaire utilising a 7-point Likert scale throughout, to assess face and content validity. Candidates were deemed either inexperienced or experienced based on whether they had performed less or more than 40 TKR respectively.


Questionnaire results were positive for all items related to both face and content validity, though inexperienced surgeons were more positive about the Sim-K in 7 of the 10 face validity items and 2 of the 5 content validity items.


The Sim-K was well received, particularly by inexperienced surgeons with respect to both face and content validity. The Sim-K represents a promising start in the production of a TKR simulator with haptic feedback. With further development this system has the potential to be valuable in the training of orthopaedic surgeons.

Source: Manual