Savoury and Kokumi Enhancement Increases Perceived Calories and Expectations of Fullness in Equicaloric Beef Broth
Authors: Tang, C., Tan, V., Teo, P.S. and Forde, C.
Journal: Food Quality and PreferenceAbstract:
A food’s sensory appeal can be affected when reformulation is focused on reducing calorie content. Savoury taste enhancers and kokumi compounds have been used to improve the sensory qualities of reduced-calorie foods, but less is known about how such enhancement influences foods’ expected calories and satiating properties. This study examined whether savoury enhancement in a beef broth has an impact on its perceived calories, expected fullness and prospective portion selection. A sensory panel (n=40, 20F) evaluated the sensory properties of broths that contained six different savoury and kokumi taste enhancers alone and in combination. Descriptive analysis and temporal-check-all-that-apply approach were used to profile the broths, and identified differences in savouriness intensity, mouthfeel and aftertaste across the different savoury- and kokumi-enhanced broths. Participants assessed each beef broth for its estimated calories and expected fullness, and self-selected prospective portion size. Total energy differences between broths were negligible, but participants’ perceptions of calorie content and expected fullness differed across the savoury- and kokumi-enhanced broths. Partial least squares regression was used to identify the sensory drivers of these differences and showed that broths with a higher intensity of ‘beef flavour’, ‘savouriness’, ‘body thickness’, ‘mouth-coating’ and ‘flavour aftertaste’ were positively related to higher calorie ratings, while ‘sourness’ intensity was negatively associated with calorie and fullness expectations. Savoury and kokumi enhancers can promote the flavour, mouthfeel and temporal sensory qualities of low-calorie foods, and could be used to increase their expected satiating properties by playing on learned associations between these sensory cues and fullness.