Air monitoring for illegal drugs including new psychoactive substances: A review of trends, techniques and thermal degradation products

Authors: Gent, L. and Paul, R.

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Volume: 13

Issue: 6

Pages: 1078-1094

eISSN: 1942-7611

ISSN: 1942-7603

DOI: 10.1002/dta.3051

Abstract:

The detection of illicit psychotropic substances in both indoor and outdoor air is a challenging analytical discipline, and the data from such investigation may provide intelligence in a variety of fields. Applications of drug monitoring in air include providing data on national and international drug consumption trends, as monitored by organisations such as the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Air monitoring enables mapping of illicit drug manufacturing, dealing or consumption in cities and the identification of emergent compounds including the recent proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS). The rapid spread of NPS has changed the global drug market with greater diversity and dynamic spread of such compounds over several nations. This review provides an up to date analysis of key thematic areas within this analytical discipline. The process of how illicit psychotropic substances spread from emission sources to the atmosphere is considered alongside the sampling and analytical procedures involved. Applications of the technique applied globally are reviewed with studies ranging from the analysis of individual dwellings through to major international air-monitoring campaigns providing evidence on global drug trends. Finally, we consider thermal breakdown products of illicit psychotropic substances including NPS that are released upon heating, combustion or vaping and related potential for exposure to these compounds in the air.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/35396/

Source: Scopus

Air monitoring for illegal drugs including new psychoactive substances: A review of trends, techniques and thermal degradation products.

Authors: Gent, L. and Paul, R.

Journal: Drug Test Anal

Volume: 13

Issue: 6

Pages: 1078-1094

eISSN: 1942-7611

DOI: 10.1002/dta.3051

Abstract:

The detection of illicit psychotropic substances in both indoor and outdoor air is a challenging analytical discipline, and the data from such investigation may provide intelligence in a variety of fields. Applications of drug monitoring in air include providing data on national and international drug consumption trends, as monitored by organisations such as the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Air monitoring enables mapping of illicit drug manufacturing, dealing or consumption in cities and the identification of emergent compounds including the recent proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS). The rapid spread of NPS has changed the global drug market with greater diversity and dynamic spread of such compounds over several nations. This review provides an up to date analysis of key thematic areas within this analytical discipline. The process of how illicit psychotropic substances spread from emission sources to the atmosphere is considered alongside the sampling and analytical procedures involved. Applications of the technique applied globally are reviewed with studies ranging from the analysis of individual dwellings through to major international air-monitoring campaigns providing evidence on global drug trends. Finally, we consider thermal breakdown products of illicit psychotropic substances including NPS that are released upon heating, combustion or vaping and related potential for exposure to these compounds in the air.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/35396/

Source: PubMed

Air monitoring for illegal drugs including new psychoactive substances: A review of trends, techniques and thermal degradation products

Authors: Gent, L. and Paul, R.

Journal: DRUG TESTING AND ANALYSIS

Volume: 13

Issue: 6

Pages: 1078-1094

eISSN: 1942-7611

ISSN: 1942-7603

DOI: 10.1002/dta.3051

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/35396/

Source: Web of Science (Lite)

Air monitoring for illegal drugs including new psychoactive substances: A review of trends, techniques and thermal degradation products

Authors: Gent, L. and Paul, R.

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISSN: 1942-7603

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/35396/

Source: Manual

Air monitoring for illegal drugs including new psychoactive substances: A review of trends, techniques and thermal degradation products.

Authors: Gent, L. and Paul, R.

Journal: Drug testing and analysis

Volume: 13

Issue: 6

Pages: 1078-1094

eISSN: 1942-7611

ISSN: 1942-7603

DOI: 10.1002/dta.3051

Abstract:

The detection of illicit psychotropic substances in both indoor and outdoor air is a challenging analytical discipline, and the data from such investigation may provide intelligence in a variety of fields. Applications of drug monitoring in air include providing data on national and international drug consumption trends, as monitored by organisations such as the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Air monitoring enables mapping of illicit drug manufacturing, dealing or consumption in cities and the identification of emergent compounds including the recent proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS). The rapid spread of NPS has changed the global drug market with greater diversity and dynamic spread of such compounds over several nations. This review provides an up to date analysis of key thematic areas within this analytical discipline. The process of how illicit psychotropic substances spread from emission sources to the atmosphere is considered alongside the sampling and analytical procedures involved. Applications of the technique applied globally are reviewed with studies ranging from the analysis of individual dwellings through to major international air-monitoring campaigns providing evidence on global drug trends. Finally, we consider thermal breakdown products of illicit psychotropic substances including NPS that are released upon heating, combustion or vaping and related potential for exposure to these compounds in the air.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/35396/

Source: Europe PubMed Central

Air monitoring for illegal drugs including new psychoactive substances: A review of trends, techniques and thermal degradation products

Authors: Gent, L. and Paul, R.

Journal: Drug Testing and Analysis

Volume: 13

Issue: 6

Pages: 1078-1094

ISSN: 1942-7603

Abstract:

The detection of illicit psychotropic substances in both indoor and outdoor air is a challenging analytical discipline and the data from such investigation may provide intelligence in a variety of fields. Applications of drug monitoring in air include providing data on national and international drug consumption trends, as monitored by organisations such as the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Air monitoring enables mapping of illicit drug manufacturing, dealing or consumption in cities and the identification of emergent compounds including the recent proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS). The rapid spread of NPS has changed the global drug market with greater diversity and dynamic spread of such compounds over several nations. This review provides an up to date analysis of key thematic areas within this analytical discipline. The process of how illicit psychotropic substances spread from emission sources to the atmosphere is considered alongside the sampling and analytical procedures involved. Applications of the technique applied globally are reviewed with studies ranging from the analysis of individual dwellings through to major international air monitoring campaigns providing evidence on global drug trends. Finally, we consider thermal breakdown products of illicit psychotropic substances including NPS that are released upon heating, combustion or vaping and related potential for exposure to these compounds in the air.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/35396/

Source: BURO EPrints