Mark Maltby

Mark Maltby

  • 01202 965159
  • mmaltby at bournemouth dot ac dot uk
  • Reader
  • Christchurch House C219, Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow, Poole, BH12 5BB
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Biography

I have a background in prehistoric and Roman archaeology and have carried out extensive research in the field of zooarchaeology. Recent and current projects include: butchery practices in Iron Age and Roman Britain; animal exploitation in Novgorod and other medieval sites in NW Russia; the food supply in Roman towns; the deposition of animal skeletons on Iron Age and Romano-British sites; the identification of worked animal bones found in early Bronze Age burial contexts; the use of salt in prehistoric and historic societies. I have also carried out consultancy projects for English Heritage, The National Museum of Wales; CADW, and for a wide range of archaeological excavation units.

Journal Articles

  • Maltby, M., Allen, M., Best, J., Fothergill, T. and Demarchi, B., 2018. Counting Roman chickens: multidisciplinary approaches to human-chicken interactions in Roman Britain. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports.
  • Hamilton-Dyer, S., Brisbane, M. and Maltby, M., 2017. Fish, feather, fur and forest: Exploitation of wild animals in medieval Novgorod and its territory. QUATERNARY INTERNATIONAL, 460, 97-107.
  • Banerjea, R.Y., Badura, M., Kalejs, U., Cerina, A., Gos, K., Hamilton-Dyer, S., Maltby, M., Seetah, K. and Pluskowski, A., 2017. A multi-proxy, diachronic and spatial perspective on the urban activities within an indigenous community in medieval Riga, Latvia. QUATERNARY INTERNATIONAL, 460, 3-21.
  • Pitt, J., Gillingham, P.K., Maltby, M., Stafford, R. and Stewart, J.R., 2017. Changing cultures, changing environments: A novel means of investigating the effects of introducing non-native species into past ecosystems. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports.
  • Colonese, A.C., Maltby, M. et al., 2017. The identification of poultry processing in archaeological ceramic vessels using in-situ isotope references for organic residue analysis. JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 78, 179-192.
  • Birch-Chapman, S., Jenkins, E., Coward, F. and Maltby, M., 2017. Estimating population size, density and dynamics of Pre-Pottery Neolithic villages in the central and southern Levant: an analysis of Beidha, southern Jordan. LEVANT, 49 (1), 1-23.
  • Pitt, J., Gillingham, P.K., Maltby, M. and Stewart, J.R., 2016. New perspectives on the ecology of early domestic fowl: An interdisciplinary approach. JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 74, 1-10.
  • Green, M., Maltby, M. and Perrin, R., 2016. Excavation of a Romano-British well at Farnham. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 136, 107-143.
  • Peters, J., Best, J., Maltby, M. et al., 2015. Questioning new answers regarding Holocene chicken domestication in China. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 112 (19), E2415.
  • Maltby, M. and Hamilton-Dyer, S., 2012. Big fish and great auks: exploitation of birds and fish on the Isle of Portland, Dorset, during the Romano-British period. Environmental Archaeology, 17 (2), 168-176.
  • Pluskowski, A., Seetah, K. and Maltby, M., 2010. Potential archaeological evidence for riding and military use of horses at Malbork Castle, Poland. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 20, 335-343.
  • Maltby, M., Pluskowski, A. and Seetah, K., 2009. Animal bones from an industrial quarter at Malbork, Poland: towards an ecology of a castle built in Prussia by the Teutonic Order. Crusades, 8, 191-212.
  • Maltby, M., 2009. Book Review: Farmers, monks and aristocrats: the environmental archaeology of Anglo-Saxon Flixborough (excavations at Flixborough volume 3), K. Dobney, D. Jaques, J. Barrett & C. Johnstone. Oxbow books, Oxford, UK 2007; ISBN: 978 1 842172902. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 19, 445-446.
  • Brisbane, M., Hambleton, E., Maltby, M. and Nosov, E., 2007. A Monkey’s Tale: The Skull of a Macaque Found at Ryurik Gorodishche During Excavations in 2003. Medieval Archaeology, 51, 185-190.
  • Maltby, M., 2006. Animal bone.In M. Edgeworth, Changes in the landscape: archaeological investigation of an Iron Age enclosure on the Stoke Hammond bypass. Records of Buckinghamshire, 46, 141-143.
  • Maltby, M., 2006. "Animal bones" in A. Mudd and T. Upson-Smith, Middle Iron Age and Late Iron Age/Early Roman enclosures at the former sports ground, Alma Road, Peterborough. Northamptonshire Archaeology, 34, 26-27.
  • Maltby, M., 2006. "The animal bones" in M. Edgeworth, Changes in the landscape: archaeological investigation of an Iron Age enclosure on the Stoke Hammond Bypass. Records of Buckinghamshire, 46, 141-143.
  • Woodward, A., Hunter, J., Ixer, R.A., Maltby, M., Potts, P.J., Webb, P.C., Watson, J.S. and Jones, M.C., 2005. Ritual in Some Early Bronze Age Gravegoods. Archaeological Journal, 162, 31-64.
  • Maltby, M., 2004. Book Review: Environmental Archaeology: Meaning and Purpose. Umberto Albarella (ed.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2001. ISBN 0792367634. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 14, 148-150.
  • Maltby, M., 2004. "Animal Bones" In M. Rawlings, M.J. Allen and F. Healy, Investigation of the Whitesheet Down Environs 1989-90: Neolithic Causewayed Enclosure and Iron Age Settlement. Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine, 97, 167-171.
  • Maltby, M., 2004. Environmental archaeology: Meaning and purpose. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OSTEOARCHAEOLOGY, 14 (2), 148-150.
  • Maltby, M., 2003. "The animal bone". In A. Thomas and D. Enright, Excavation of an Iron Age settlement at Wilby Way, Great Doddington. Northamptonshire Archaeology, 31, 48-56.
  • Brisbane, M. and Maltby, M., 2002. Love letters to bare bones: a comparison of two types of evidence for the use of animals in Medieval Novgorod. Archaeological Review from Cambridge, 18, 100-119.
  • Maltby, M., 2001. Animal Bone In A. Barber and N. Holbrook, A Romano-British Settlement to the rear of Denchworth Road, Wantage, Oxfordshire: Evaluation and Excavation in 1996 and 1998. Oxoniensia, 66, 320-325.
  • Maltby, M., 2001. Animal Bones in Ellis, C. and Rawlings, Excavations at Balksbury Camp, Andover 1995-97. Proceedings of Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society, 56, 76-80.
  • Maltby, M., 1997. Domestic fowl on Romano-British sites: Inter-site comparisons of abundance. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OSTEOARCHAEOLOGY, 7 (4), 402-414.

Books

  • Maltby, M., 2010. Feeding a Roman Town: Environmental Evidence from Excavations in Winchester, 1972-1985.. Winchester, England: Winchester Museum Service.
  • Integrating Social and Environmental Archaeologies: Reconsidering Deposition.. Oxford: Archaeopress.
  • Maltby, M., 2006. Integrating Zooarchaeology: Proceedings of the 9th ICAZ Conference. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
  • Integrating Zooarchaeology. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Chapters

  • Maltby, M., 2017. From Bovid to beaver: animal exploitation in medieval North-West Russia. In: Albarella, U., Russ, H., Vickers, K. and Viner, S., eds. The Oxford Handbook of Zooarchaeology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 230-244.
  • Maltby, M., Pluskowski, A., Seetah, K. and Banerjea, R., 2017. Velo viduslaiku zirgu skeletu un zirglietu atradumi Cesu pils priekspili. In: Kalnins, G., ed. Cēsu Pils Raksti 1. Cesis: Cesis Castle.
  • Maltby, M., 2017. Horseflesh and beaver pelts: aspects of faunal studies in Medieval Novgorod and its region. In: Choyke, A. and Jatitz, G., eds. Animaltown: Beasts in Medieval Urban Space.. Oxford: Hadrian Press/Archaeopress, 27-34.
  • Maltby, M., 2017. Humans and animals in Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age Dorset. In: Rowley-Conwy, P., Serjeantson, D. and Halstead, P., eds. Economic Zooarchaeology: Studies in Hunting, Herding and early Agriculture. Oxford: Oxbow, 231-239.
  • Maltby, M., 2017. The Exploitation of Animals and their Contribution to Urban Food Supply in Roman Southern England. In: Bird, D., ed. Agriculture and Industry in South-Eastern Roman Britain. Oxford: Oxbow, 180-209.
  • Maltby, M., 2016. The animal bones. In: Ingham, D., Oetgen, J. and Slowikowski, A., eds. Newnham: a Roman Bath House and Estate Centre east of Bedford. East Anglian Archaeology.
  • Maltby, M., 2016. Animal bone. In: Luke, M., ed. Close to the Loop: Landscape and Settlement Evolution beside the Biddenham Loop, west of Bedford. East Anglian Archaeology.
  • Maltby, M., 2015. Animal bone and antler. In: Woodward, A. and Hunter, J., eds. Ritual in Early Bronze Age Grave Goods. Oxford: Oxbow.
  • Maltby, M. and Hambleton, E., 2015. Deer and humans in South Wales during the Roman and Medieval periods. In: Baker, K., Carden, R. and Madgwick, R., eds. Deer and People.. Windgather, 187-199.
  • Maltby, M., 2015. Commercial archaeology, zooarchaeology and the study of Romano-British towns. In: Fulford, M., ed. The Towns of Roman Britain: the Contribution of Commercial Archaeology since 1990.. London: Britannia, 175-193.
  • Maltby, M., 2015. Animal bone and antler. In: Woodward, A., ed. Ritual in Early Bronze Age Grave Goods. Oxford: Oxbow.
  • Brisbane, M., Hambleton, E., Hamilton-Dyer, S. and Maltby, M., 2015. Reflections on the Ecological Setting and Environmental Impact of Medieval Settlement Expansion in Northern Russia. In: Gaidukov, P., ed. Towns and Villages of Medieval Russia. Moscow: Russian Academy of Science, 36-44.
  • Maltby, M., 2014. Recording butchery and bone working. In: Baker, P. and Worley, F., eds. Animal Bones and Archaeology: Guidelines for Best Practice. Portsmouth: English Heritage, 36-37.
  • Maltby, M., 2014. The animal bones. In: Wilson, D., Bagnall, A. and Taylor, B., eds. Report on the Excavation of a Romano-British Site in Wortley, South Gloucestershire. Oxford: Archaeopress, 164-179.
  • Maltby, M., 2014. The exploitation of animals in Roman Britain. In: Millett, M., Revell, L. and Moore, A., eds. The Oxford Handbook of Roman Britain.. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Maltby, M., 2013. The exploitation of animals in towns in the Medieval Baltic trading network: a case study from Novgorod. In: Makarov, N., Mastykova, A. and Khokhlov, A., eds. Archaeology of the Baltic Region. Saint Petersburg: Nestor-Historia, 229-244.
  • Allen, M. and Maltby, M., 2012. Chalcolithic land-use, animals and economy - a chronological changing point? In: Allen, M., Gardiner, J. and Sheridan, A., eds. Is There a British Chalcolithic? People, Place and Polity in the late 3rd Millennium. Oxford: Oxbow, 281-297.
  • Maltby, M., 2012. Sheep foundation burials in Roman Winchester. In: Pluskowski, A., ed. The Ritual Killing and Burial of Animals: European Perspectives. Oxford: Oxbow, 152-163.
  • Maltby, M., 2012. From Alces to Zander:: A summary of the zooarchaeological evidence from Novgorod, Gorodishche and Minino. In: Brisbane, M., Makarov, N. and Nosov, E., eds. The Archaeology of Medieval Novgorod in Context: Studies in Centre/Periphery Relations. Oxford, England: Oxbow, 351-380.
  • Maltby, M., 2012. Animal bones from prehistoric ritual activity and Saxon settlement at Meadway (edited by N. Shepherd, A. Walsh and J.Wells). In: Ingham, D. and Shotliff, D., eds. HArrold: 5,000 Years of Life and Death in a North Bedfordshire Village. Bedford: Albion Archaeology, 64-69.
  • Maltby, M., 2011. Animal bone. In: Luke, M. and Preece, T., eds. Farm and Forge: Late Iron Age/Romano-British Farmsteads at Marsh Leys, Kempston, Bedfordshire. Bedford: Albion Archaeology, 123-128.
  • Madgwick, R., 2010. Bone modification and the conceptual relationship between humans and animals in Iron Age Wessex. In: Morris, J.T. and Maltby, M., eds. Integrating social and environmental archaeologies: Reconsidering deposition. Oxford: Archaeopress, 66-82.
  • Maltby, M., 2010. Pits and wells. In: Morris, J. and Maltby, M., eds. Integrating Social and Environmental Archaeologies: Reconsidering Deposition. Oxford: Archaeopress, 24-32.
  • Morris, J. and Maltby, M., 2010. Introduction: Integrating Social and Environmental Archaeologies. In: Morris, J. and Maltby, M., eds. Integrating Social and Environmental Archaeologies: Reconsidering Deposition. Oxford, England: Archaeopress, 1-4.
  • Maltby, M., 2010. Zooarchaeology and the interpretation of depositions in shafts. In: Morris, J. and Maltby, M., eds. Integrating Social and Environmental Archaeologies: Reconsidering Deposition (British Archaeological Reports International Series). British Archaeological Reports (9 Mar 2010).
  • Maltby, M., 2009. Bones: mammals, birds and fish. In: Palmer, S. and Reilly, D., eds. Excavation of an Enigmatic Multi-period site on the Isle of Portland, Dorset. Oxford: Archaeopress, 27-43.
  • Maltby, M., 2009. The worked antler and bone. In: Daniel, P., ed. Archaeological Excavations at Pode Hole Quarry: Bronze Age Occupation on the Cambridgeshire Fen-edge. Oxford: Archaeopress, 89-91.
  • Maltby, M., 2008. Animal bones from Biddenham Loop, Bedfordshire. In: Luke, M., ed. Life in the Loop: Investigation of a Prehistoric and Romano-British Landscape at Biddenham Loop, Bedfordshire. Bedford, England: East Anglian Archaeology.
  • Hambleton, E. and Maltby, M., 2008. Faunal Remains. In: Ellis, C., Powell, A.B. and Hawkes, J., eds. An Iron Age Settlement Outside Battlesbury Hillfort, Warminster and Sites Along the Southern Range Road. Salisbury, England: Wessex Archaeology, 84-93.
  • Maltby, M., 2007. Chop and change: specialist cattle carcass processing in Roman Britain. In: Croxford, B., Ray, N. and Roth, R., eds. TRAC 2006: Proceedings of the 16th Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference. Oxford: Oxbow, 59-76.
  • Maltby, M., 2007. Animal Bones (Monkton-up-Wimborne Early Iron Age Enclosure). In: French, C., Lewis, H., Allen, M.J., Green, M., Scaife, R. and Gardiner, J., eds. Prehistoric Landscape Development and Human Impact in the Upper Allen Valley, Cranborne Chase, Dorset. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 390.
  • Maltby, M., Ford, V. and Mason, K., 2007. Animal Bones (Monkton-up-Wimborne Pond Barrow). In: French, C., Lewis, H., Allen, M.J., Green, M., Scaife, R. and Gardiner, J., eds. Prehistoric Landscape Development and Human Impact in the Upper Allen Valley, Cranborne Chase, Dorset. Cambridge: McDonald Institute Monographs, 384-386.
  • Maltby, M., 2007. Faunal Remains (Monkton-up-Wimborne Pit/Shaft Complex). In: French, C., Lewis, H., Allen, M.J., Green, M., Scaife, R. and Gardiner, J., eds. Prehistoric Landscape Development and Human Impact in the Upper Allen Valley, Cranborne Chase, Dorset. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 361-372.
  • Rothwell, A. and Maltby, M., 2007. Summary of the Faunal Remains Analysis (Wyke Down Henge 2 and Grooved Ware Settlement). In: French, C., Lewis, H., Allen, M.J., Green, M., Scaife, R. and Gardiner, J., eds. Prehistoric Landscape Development and Human Impact in the upper Allen Valley, Cranborne Chase, Dorset. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 319-320.
  • Maltby, M., 2007. Animal Bones from the Fir Tree Shaft Field and Associated Pits. In: French, C., Lewis, H., Allen, M.J., Green, M., Scaife, R. and Gardier, J., eds. Prehistoric Landscape Development and Human Impact in the Upper Allen Valley, Cranborne Chase, Dorset. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 295-305.
  • Brisbane, M., Maltby, M. and Hambleton, E., 2007. An African Monkey at the Court of the Novgorod Princes. In: Nosov, E.N. and Musin, A.E., eds. The Origins of the Russian State : To the 30th Anniversary of the Archaeological Studies of Novgorod Ryurik Gorodishche and the Novgorod Oblast Archaeological Expedition. St Petersburg, Russia: Dimitri Bulanin, 74-81.
  • Maltby, M., 2006. Salt and Animal Products: Linking Production and Use in Iron Age Britain. In: Maltby, M., ed. Integrating Zooarchaeology. Proceedings of the 9th ICAZ Conference, Durham, August 2002. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 117-122.
  • Maltby, M., 2006. Integrating Zooarchaelogy: Introduction. In: Maltby, M., ed. Integrating Zooarchaeology: Proceedings of the 9th ICAZ Conference. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 1-4.
  • Maltby, M., 2002. Animal Bones from Alington Avenue, Fordington, Dorset. In: Davies, S.M., Bellamy, P.E., Heaton, M.J. and Wooward, P.J., eds. Excavations at Alington Avenue, Fordington, Dorset. Dorchester: Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society.
  • Maltby, M., 2002. Animal bones in archaeology: how archaeozoologists can make a greater contribution to British Iron Age and Romano-British Archaeology. In: Dobney, K. and O'Connor, T., eds. Bones and the Man: studies in honour of Don Brothwell. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 88-94.
  • Maltby, M. and Hamilton-Dyer, S., 2001. Animal Bone Studies in Novgorod and its Hinterland. In: Brisbane, M. and Gaimster, D., eds. Novgorod : the archaeology of a Russian medieval city and its hinterland. London: British Museum.
  • Maltby, M. and Hamilton-Dyer, S., 2001. Auch Fleisch und Fisch Standen auf dem Speiseplan: Studien an Tierknochen aus Novgorod und Seinem Umland. In: Müller Wille, M., Yanin, V.L., Nosov, E.N. and Rybina, E.A., eds. Novgorod: Das Mittelalterliche Zentrum und Sein Umland in Norden Rußland.. Wacholtz Verlag, 369-380.
  • Maltby, M., 2001. Faunal remains (AES76-7). In: Booth, P. and Evans, J., eds. Roman Alcester: Northern Extramual Area, 1969-1988 Excavations. London: Council for British Archaeology, 265-290.

Conferences

  • Maltby, M., 2015. Roman urban zooarchaeology. In: Baker, P., ed. Professional Zooarchaeology Group Roman Zooarchaeology 8-9 August 2015 Portsmouth.
  • Maltby, M., 2015. Chickens: from exotica to fast food. In: Humans and Chickens Workshop 30 January 2015 University of York.
  • Maltby, M., 2014. Removing the appendix: integrating zooarchaeology into Roman studies. In: Roman Archaeological Conference 2014 27-29 March 2014 University of Reading.
  • Maltby, M., 2014. Animal Exploitation in medieval Novgorod and its territories. In: Terrs sacra: The Ecology of Crusading Project 18-20 September 2014 Riga and Cesis, Latvia.
  • Maltby, M., 2014. Why did chickens cross the globe? In: Animals! Understanding human culture through the ubiquitous others 6 September 2014 Chichester.
  • Maltby, M., 2013. From MNI to MNS: collaborative approaches to studying animals and human societies. In: Theoretical Archaeology Conference 16-18 December 2013 Bournemouth University.
  • Maltby, M., 2013. Commercial Archaeology, Zooarchaeology and the Study of Romano-British Towns. In: Fulford, M. and Holbrook, N., eds. Assessing the Contribution of Commercial Archaeology to the Study of Romano-British Towns 30 November 2013 University of Reading.
  • Maltby, M., Sykes, N. and Thomas, R., 2013. Chickens: their spread and impact in western Europe. In: World Archaeological Congress 13-19 January 2013 Dead Sea, Jordon.
  • Maltby, M., 2012. The exploitation of animals in towns in the medieval Baltic trading network. In: The Archaeology of the Baltic Region: New Investigations and Discoveries (Institute of Archaeology (Moscow) of the Russian Academy of Sciences) 17-20 November 2010 Kaliningrad, Russia.
  • Maltby, M. and Hambleton, E., 2011. Deer and Humans in south Wales during the Roman and Medieval Periods. In: Deer and People: Past, Present and Future 8-11 September 2011 University of Lincoln.
  • Maltby, M., 2011. Zooarchaeology and the Study of Towns: past, present and future. In: International Council for Archaeozoology Conference 23-28 August 2010 Paris, France.
  • Maltby, M., 2011. Specialist Roman butchery - challenges of identification, classification, quantification and interpretation. In: Professional Zooarchaeology Group, 11th Meeting 19 February 2011 Cambridge, England.
  • Maltby, M., 2010. The Iron Age-Roman Transition in South-East England: the evidence from Braughing. In: International Council for Archaeozoology Conference 23-28 August 2010 Paris, France.

Reports

Theses

PhD Students

  • Michelle Feider, 2020. Small Mammals and Amphibians from Turkish prehistoric sites
  • Shannon Birch
  • Jacqueline Pitt
  • Michael Feider

Profile of Teaching PG

  • Humans Animals and Diet

Profile of Teaching UG

  • Animals and Society
  • Societies of Prehistoric Europe

Grants

  • Early Chicken Dispersal in Europe: (Natural Environment Research Council [2006-2012], 01 Aug 2016). In Progress
  • Cultural and Scientific Perception of Human-Chicken Interactions (AHRC, 01 Jan 2014). Awarded
  • The Ecology of Crusading: The Environmental Impact of Conquest, Colonisation and Religious Conversion in the Medieval Baltic (European Research Council, 01 Oct 2010). Completed
  • Examination of ritual & dress equipment from British early Bronze Age graves (Leverhulme Trust, 01 Jan 2007). Completed

Conference Presentations

  • Theoretical Archaeology Group Conference, From MNI to MNS: Collaborative Approaches to Studying Animals and Human Societies, 16 Dec 2013, Bournemouth University
  • Roman Archaeology Conference, Removing the Appendix: Integrating Zooarchaeology into Roman Studies, 27 Mar 2014, University of Reading
  • Animals! Understanding Human Culture through the Ubiquitous Others Conference, Why did chickens cross the globe, 06 Sep 2014, Chichester University
  • Ecology of Crusading Project Conference, The Exploitation of Animals in Medieval Novgorod, 17 Sep 2014, Riga/Cēsis, Latvia
  • Humans and Chickens Workshop, Chickens: from Exotica to Fast Food, 30 Jan 2015, University of York
  • European Association of Archaeologists Conference, More than a dietary supplement: Humans and Chickens in Roman Britain, 02 Sep 2015, University of Glasgow
  • Association of Environmental Archaeology Conference, Celebrating the career of Professor Terry O’Connor, 06 Nov 2015, University of York
  • Roman Archaeology Conference, Multidisciplinary Approaches to Human-Chicken Interactions: Contextualising Britain in the Wider Roman World, 16 Mar 2016, Sapienza Università di Roma, Italy

Qualifications

  • PhD in Archaeology (Bournemouth University, 2012)

Memberships

  • Association of Environmental Archaeology, Member,
  • Association of European Archaeologists, Member (2006-),
  • Chartered Institute for Archaeologists, Member,
  • International Council for Archaeozoology, Member,
  • Society of Antiquaries of London, Fellow (2006-),
The data on this page was last updated at 14:10 on November 22, 2017.