Inter-Rater Reliability and Criterion Validity of Scatter Diagrams as an Input Method for Marksmanship Analysis: Computerised Notational Analysis for Archery
Authors: Callaway, A. and Broomfield, S.
Editors: O'Donoghue, P.
Journal: International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport
Basic notational systems exist in many sports but may not always be formally named as such. This paper outlines the validity and reliability of using a computerised scatter diagram as an input method for the analysis of marksmanship in target sports with Archery used as an example sport. Software was created to represent a standard FITA 122cm target face. An Archer shot 72 arrows, these were measured to create coordinates of each arrow. Twelve images (6 arrows per image) were shown to 10 operators. Operators input each arrow position into the software to produce a coordinate for each arrow. The coordinates where additionally processed using marksmanship statistics, Accuracy Constant Error (ACE), Accuracy Variable Error (AVE) and Precision (Mean Radius-MR). ICC was used to test validity and PPMC to test inter-rater reliability of the raw data and error analysis on the processed data. Raw results showed strong positive correlations for validity against the measured coordinates (>.977) and high levels of inter-rater reliability(>.969). Processed results show less than 2% error to that of measured results. Systems such as this allow coach/athlete/researcher to track varying equipment setups, changes to biomechanics, physiology and psychology, allowing for continued development of athlete, sport and equipment.
Preferred by: Shelley Ellis and Andrew Callaway