Repeated exposure and conditioning strategies for increasing vegetable liking and intake: Systematic review and meta-analyses of the published literature

Authors: Appleton, K.M., Hemingway, A., Rajska, J. and Hartwell, H.

Journal: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Volume: 108

Issue: 4

Pages: 842-856

eISSN: 1938-3207

ISSN: 0002-9165

DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy143

Abstract:

Background Vegetable intakes are typically lower than recommended for health. Although repeated exposure has been advocated to increase vegetable liking and consumption, no combination of the evidence yet provides a measure of benefit from repeated exposure or alternative conditioning strategies. Objective This work aimed to identify and synthesize the current evidence for the use of repeated exposure and conditioning strategies for increasing vegetable liking and consumption. Design Three academic databases were searched over all years of records using prespecified search terms. Published data from all suitable articles were tabulated in relation to 3 research questions and combined via meta-analyses. Results Forty-three articles detailing 117 comparisons investigating the use of repeated exposure and conditioning strategies for increasing liking and intakes of vegetables were found. Our analyses demonstrate: 1) increased liking and intakes of the exposed vegetable after repeated exposure compared with no exposure; 2) increased liking for the exposed vegetable after conditioning compared with repeated exposure, increased intakes after the use of rewards, and some suggestion of decreased intakes after flavor-nutrient conditioning; and 3) increased liking and intakes of a novel vegetable after repeated exposure to a variety of other vegetables compared with no exposure or repeated exposure to one other vegetable. Effect sizes, however, are small, and limited evidence suggests long-term benefits. Our analyses, furthermore, are limited by limitations in study design, compliance, and/or reporting. Conclusions Based on our findings, we recommend the use of repeated exposure to one and a variety of vegetables, and the use of rewards, for increasing vegetable liking and consumption. Confirmation from further large, well-conducted studies that use realistic scenarios, however, is also required. This study was registered at PROSPERO as CRD42017056919.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/31097/

Source: Scopus

Repeated exposure and conditioning strategies for increasing vegetable liking and intake: systematic review and meta-analyses of the published literature.

Authors: Appleton, K.M., Hemingway, A., Rajska, J. and Hartwell, H.

Journal: Am J Clin Nutr

Volume: 108

Issue: 4

Pages: 842-856

eISSN: 1938-3207

DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy143

Abstract:

Background: Vegetable intakes are typically lower than recommended for health. Although repeated exposure has been advocated to increase vegetable liking and consumption, no combination of the evidence yet provides a measure of benefit from repeated exposure or alternative conditioning strategies. Objective: This work aimed to identify and synthesize the current evidence for the use of repeated exposure and conditioning strategies for increasing vegetable liking and consumption. Design: Three academic databases were searched over all years of records using prespecified search terms. Published data from all suitable articles were tabulated in relation to 3 research questions and combined via meta-analyses. Results: Forty-three articles detailing 117 comparisons investigating the use of repeated exposure and conditioning strategies for increasing liking and intakes of vegetables were found. Our analyses demonstrate: 1) increased liking and intakes of the exposed vegetable after repeated exposure compared with no exposure; 2) increased liking for the exposed vegetable after conditioning compared with repeated exposure, increased intakes after the use of rewards, and some suggestion of decreased intakes after flavor-nutrient conditioning; and 3) increased liking and intakes of a novel vegetable after repeated exposure to a variety of other vegetables compared with no exposure or repeated exposure to one other vegetable. Effect sizes, however, are small, and limited evidence suggests long-term benefits. Our analyses, furthermore, are limited by limitations in study design, compliance, and/or reporting. Conclusions: Based on our findings, we recommend the use of repeated exposure to one and a variety of vegetables, and the use of rewards, for increasing vegetable liking and consumption. Confirmation from further large, well-conducted studies that use realistic scenarios, however, is also required. This study was registered at PROSPERO as CRD42017056919.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/31097/

Source: PubMed

Repeated exposure and conditioning strategies for increasing vegetable liking and intake: systematic review and meta-analyses of the published literature

Authors: Appleton, K.M., Hemingway, A., Rajska, J. and Hartwell, H.

Journal: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION

Volume: 108

Issue: 4

Pages: 842-856

eISSN: 1938-3207

ISSN: 0002-9165

DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy143

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/31097/

Source: Web of Science (Lite)

Repeated exposure and conditioning strategies for increasing vegetable liking and intake: systematic review and meta-analyses of the published literature (vol 108, pg 842, 2018)

Authors: Appleton, K.M., Hemingway, A., Rajska, J. and Hartwell, H.

Journal: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION

Volume: 109

Issue: 1

eISSN: 1938-3207

ISSN: 0002-9165

DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy350

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/31097/

Source: Web of Science (Lite)

Repeated exposure and conditioning strategies for increasing vegetable liking and intake: Systematic review and meta-analyses of the published literature

Authors: Appleton, K., Hemingway, A., Rajska, J., Hartwell, H. and rajska, J.

Journal: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publisher: American Society for Clinical Nutrition, Inc.

ISSN: 0002-9165

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/31097/

Source: Manual

Repeated exposure and conditioning strategies for increasing vegetable liking and intake: systematic review and meta-analyses of the published literature.

Authors: Appleton, K.M., Hemingway, A., Rajska, J. and Hartwell, H.

Journal: The American journal of clinical nutrition

Volume: 108

Issue: 4

Pages: 842-856

eISSN: 1938-3207

ISSN: 0002-9165

DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy143

Abstract:

Background

Vegetable intakes are typically lower than recommended for health. Although repeated exposure has been advocated to increase vegetable liking and consumption, no combination of the evidence yet provides a measure of benefit from repeated exposure or alternative conditioning strategies.

Objective

This work aimed to identify and synthesize the current evidence for the use of repeated exposure and conditioning strategies for increasing vegetable liking and consumption.

Design

Three academic databases were searched over all years of records using prespecified search terms. Published data from all suitable articles were tabulated in relation to 3 research questions and combined via meta-analyses.

Results

Forty-three articles detailing 117 comparisons investigating the use of repeated exposure and conditioning strategies for increasing liking and intakes of vegetables were found. Our analyses demonstrate: 1) increased liking and intakes of the exposed vegetable after repeated exposure compared with no exposure; 2) increased liking for the exposed vegetable after conditioning compared with repeated exposure, increased intakes after the use of rewards, and some suggestion of decreased intakes after flavor-nutrient conditioning; and 3) increased liking and intakes of a novel vegetable after repeated exposure to a variety of other vegetables compared with no exposure or repeated exposure to one other vegetable. Effect sizes, however, are small, and limited evidence suggests long-term benefits. Our analyses, furthermore, are limited by limitations in study design, compliance, and/or reporting.

Conclusions

Based on our findings, we recommend the use of repeated exposure to one and a variety of vegetables, and the use of rewards, for increasing vegetable liking and consumption. Confirmation from further large, well-conducted studies that use realistic scenarios, however, is also required. This study was registered at PROSPERO as CRD42017056919.

http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/31097/

Source: Europe PubMed Central