Alejandro Estudillo

Dr Alejandro Estudillo

  • Senior Lecturer In Psychology
  • Poole House P332, Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow, Poole, BH12 5BB
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I received my BSc Psychology (Hons) degree from the University of Málaga (Spain) in 2008. I then continued my postgraduate studies at the University of Granada (MSc in Cognitive and Behavioural Neuroscience) and at the University of Edinburgh (MSc in Human Cognitive Neuropsychology). Following this, I commenced my PhD at the University of Kent, and was awarded with a PhD in Human Cognitive Psychology and Neuropsychology in 2016. Subsequently, I became an Assistant Professor at the University of Nottingham Malaysia, before I moved to Bournemouth in 2020.


My research focuses on understanding how our visual system provide us with information about the world that we can use to recognize and interact with objects, environments and people. I am interested in visual perception from the most basic level (e.g. how we discriminate between different shapes) to the most complex (e.g., face and object recognition). I am also interested in the cognitive mechanisms used to solve different mathematical operations (e.g., additions and subtractions).

To provide this understanding, I use techniques, such as eye-tracking (which allows us to track where participants are looking), EEG-ERP (to measure participants’ brain activity while viewing certain stimuli, such as faces and other objects), and classical behavioral (e.g., old/new recognition memory paradigm) and psychophysical paradigms.

I always welcome applications of potential MRes and PhD students. If you are interested in pursuing postgraduate research studies in face processing and mathematical cognition, please get in touch and send me your CV.

Journal Articles

  • Estudillo, A.J., Lee, Y.J., Álvarez-Montesinos, J.A. and García-Orza, J., 2023. High-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation enhances unfamiliar face matching of high resolution and pixelated faces. Brain and Cognition, 165.
  • Estudillo, A.J., Lee, Y.J., Alvarez-Montesinos, J.A. and Garcia-Orza, J., 2023. High-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation enhances unfamiliar face matching of high resolution and pixelated faces. BRAIN AND COGNITION, 165.
  • Kho, S.K., Leong, B.Q.Z., Keeble, D.R.T., Wong, H.K. and Estudillo, A.J., 2023. A new Asian version of the CFMT: The Cambridge Face Memory Test – Chinese Malaysian (CFMT-MY). Behavior Research Methods.
  • Estudillo, A.J. and Wong, H.K., 2022. Two face masks are better than one: congruency effects in face matching. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 7 (1).
  • Wong, H.K. and Estudillo, A.J., 2022. Face masks affect emotion categorisation, age estimation, recognition, and gender classification from faces. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 7 (1).
  • Lee, J.K.W., Gregson, C., Janssen, S.M.J. and Estudillo, A.J., 2022. Cultural modulation effects on the Self-Face Advantage: Do Caucasians find their own faces faster than Chinese? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology.
  • Lee, J.K.W., Janssen, S.M.J. and Estudillo, A.J., 2022. A more featural based processing for the self-face: An eye-tracking study. Consciousness and Cognition, 105.
  • Lee, J.K.W., Janssen, S.M.J. and Estudillo, A.J., 2022. A featural account for own-face processing? Looking for support from face inversion, composite face, and part-whole tasks. i-Perception, 13 (4).
  • Estudillo, A.J., Zheng, B.L.Q. and Wong, H.K., 2022. Navon-induced processing biases fail to affect the recognition of whole faces and isolated facial features. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 34 (6), 744-754.
  • Wong, H.K., Estudillo, A.J., Stephen, I.D. and Keeble, D.R.T., 2021. The other-race effect and holistic processing across racial groups. Scientific Reports, 11 (1).
  • Estudillo, A.J., Hills, P. and Wong, H.K., 2021. The Effect of Face Masks on Forensic Face Matching: An Individual Differences Study. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition.
  • Estudillo, A.J. and Wong, H.K., 2021. Associations between self-reported and objective face recognition abilities are only evident in above- And below-average recognisers. PeerJ, 9.
  • Estudillo, A.J., 2021. Self-reported face recognition abilities for own and other-race faces. Journal of Criminal Psychology, 11 (2), 105-115.
  • Estudillo, A.J., Lee, J.K.W., Mennie, N. and Burns, E., 2020. No evidence of other-race effect for Chinese faces in Malaysian non-Chinese population. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 34 (1), 270-276.
  • Estudillo, A.J., Kaufmann, J.M., Bindemann, M. and Schweinberger, S.R., 2018. Multisensory stimulation modulates perceptual and post perceptual face representations: Evidence from event-related potentials. European Journal of Neuroscience, 48 (5), 2259-2271.
  • Montenegro, I.R., Álvarez-Montesinos, J.A., Estudillo, A.J. and García-Orza, J., 2017. Direct current electrical stimulation in the treatment of aphasia. Revista de Neurologia, 65 (12), 553-562.
  • García-Orza, J., Estudillo, A.J., Calleja, M. and Rodríguez, J.M., 2017. Is place-value processing in four-digit numbers fully automatic? Yes, but not always. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 24 (6), 1906-1914.
  • Estudillo, A.J. and Bindemann, M., 2017. Can gaze-contingent mirror-feedback from unfamiliar faces alter self-recognition? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70 (5), 944-958.
  • Estudillo, A.J., 2017. Commentary: My face or yours? Event-related potential correlates of self-face processing. Frontiers in Psychology, 8 (APR).
  • Estudillo, A.J. and Bindemann, M., 2016. Multisensory stimulation with other-race faces and the reduction of racial prejudice. Consciousness and Cognition, 42, 325-339.
  • Estudillo, A.J., Romero, E.B., Casado, N., Das, J.P. and Garcia-Orza, J., 2015. Automaticity in subtractions depends on problem-size. Anales de Psicologia, 31 (2), 697-704.
  • Estudillo, A.J. and Bindemann, M., 2014. Generalization across view in face memory and face matching. i-Perception, 5 (7), 589-601.
  • Estudillo, A.J., 2012. Facial memory: The role of the pre-existing knowledge in face processing and recognition. Europe's Journal of Psychology, 8 (2), 231-244.
  • García-Orza, J., Perea, M. and Estudillo, A., 2011. Masked transposition effects for simple versus complex nonalphanumeric objects. Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, 73 (8), 2573-2582.


  • Estudillo, A.J. and Bindemann, M., 2017. A multi-sensory system for self-face learning. Face Processing: Systems, Disorders and Cultural Differences. 241-254.


  • Kho, S.K., Keeble, D., Wong, H.K. and Estudillo, A., 2022. Investigating the role of the occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) using multifocal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). PERCEPTION, 51, 129-130.
  • Wong, H.K., Kho, S.K., Keeble, D. and Estudillo, A., 2022. Introducing the Cambridge Face Memory Test - Malaysian Chinese (CFMT-MY). PERCEPTION, 51, 129.
  • Wye, J.L.K. and Estudillo, A.J., 2019. Exploring Visual Processing Strategies of Self-Face and Other-Face Recognition. I-PERCEPTION, 10, 123-124.
  • Estudillo, A.J. and Frida, N., 2019. Matching Faces: The Facial Features are Important, But So DO the Whole Face. Change 'DOES' to 'DO'. I-PERCEPTION, 10, 10.
  • Estudillo, A.J., 2017. Face Matching Requires Holistic Processing: Evidence From a Gaze-Contingent Task. I-PERCEPTION, 8, 44.
  • Estudillo, A.J. and Bindemann, M., 2014. Please do not disturb: Declarative associative learning with and without interference. PERCEPTION, 43 (1), 153.


  • Creation of a neurophysiology lab (CAPEX, 01 Nov 2019). Awarded
  • Understanding the difficulties in solving single–digit multiplications. A neuro–educational approach. (Fundamental Research Grant Scheme. Ministry of Education Malaysia, 01 Sep 2019). Awarded
  • Using neuroscience to understand and improve human face recognition. (Fundamental Research Grant Scheme. Ministry of Education Malaysia, 01 Sep 2018). Awarded
  • Creation of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning Laboratory (Facilities and equipment Research Grant, 01 Aug 2018). Awarded
  • The neural basis of the enfacement illusion (Experimental Psychology Society, 01 Nov 2014). Completed
  • Dyscalculia: a neurocognitive view (Spanish Science Government Department, 01 Sep 2012). Completed
  • Psychology and neuropsychology of numerical processing and calculus. (Spanish Science Government Department, 01 Sep 2009). Completed